Connect with us

East Asia

Behind the arrangement of “state visit plus” for President Trump in China

Published

on

Authors: Wang Li & Yang Yi-zhong*

According to a conventional argument, with no heir apparent and his power firmly consolidated, Chinese President Xi Jinping is at the height of his authority when U.S. President Trump made his first state visit last week. On October 18, Xi’s inaugurating message was clear: China is already a superpower and should begin to act like one.

This should be a wake-up call for the United States. North Korea is certainly an urgent security issue that needs to be resolved. But Trump has to widen his focus to counter China’s increasingly assertive foreign policy and address challenges to U.S. leadership in the region. Given this, the world media once again focused on Trump’s visit to China and the meetings followed between Trump and Xi Jinping.

But in Chinese eyes, this is Trump’s first visit to China since he assumed the presidency in February, and also a “unforgettable” trip to China, as he said, because Xi and his wife welcomed Trump’s couple with a special arrangement of “state visit plus”. In foreign affairs, protocol is commonly described as a set of international courtesy rules including high-standard reception. In view of this common practice, President Xi Jinping and his wife welcomed their state guests with an informal afternoon tea and then formal dinner at the Palace Museum, also called “the Forbidden City”. Why?

First is to show Chinese traditional culture. When President Xi Jinping visited Mar-a-Lago last April, President Trump offered a hospitable and considerate reception to Xi and his wife with high-standard and thoughtful arrangements being made in all respects. Since China is known as a nation that courtesy calls for reciprocity, Beijing attached great importance to President Trump’s visit to China. As the Forbidden City embodies both the ancient splendor of the Chinese culture and mirrors the vicissitudes of modern China, it serves as an indispensable window to learn about the Chinese aspiration for the greatness in the world. It was during the tour in the Forbidden City where President Xi lost no time to reveal the core parts of Chinese thinking on the world order in the new century, that is, the harmony should be the supreme mean (way) of the human society. China will be dedicated to create a new-type of great power relationship in light of shared destiny of global community.

Second is to present the mutual respect. Also in the Forbidden City, President Trump showed President Xi a video of his grand-daughter Arabella Kushner singing in Mandarin and reciting the ancient Chinese poetry. That video has been shared and reposted enthusiastically by Chinese netizens many times. In terms of the concept of “public diplomacy”, Arabella acted as the little ambassador of China-US friendship since she is adored by the Chinese people across the country. This special episode is very heart-warming indeed, as it was reported that Xi’s couple were deeply impressed by Arabella’s excellence in Chinese. It can be said that certain social groups of America including the “First Family” of the United States have revealed their respects to Chinese culture and classical values. Given this, it is important to bring closer the distance between the Chinese and American people through their common interests and the shared responsibilities as the two largest economic giants.

Obviously, from the very beginning, Xi Jinping and Trump have worked to forge a mutual respect and trust in their personal ties. Because of this, both of them liked to have small-group and informal interactions, which gave them enough time and room to have an in-depth and strategic exchange of views on major issues of common interest. And the exchange of views can help the two powers to enhance mutual understanding and mutual trust in the future. Yet, behind this point, we can discern that Trump has received an honour in Beijing not granted to any U.S. President since the ice-breaking trip to China by former President Nixon in 1972. As the Forbidden City was the historic palace that housed Chinese emperors and their families for over 600 years, dining in the Forbidden City is indeed a significant honour for Trump and his family, in keeping with what China’s Ambassador to the U.S. Cui Tiankai had promised would be a “state visit-plus.”

However, the relations between China and the United States are essentially related to “high politics” that involves security issues, trade disputes and the balance of power. In his meetings with Xi, Trump talked firmly about the DPRK-related resolutions of the UN Security Council. President Xi made it clear that China earnestly fulfills its due international obligations in light of the resolutions of UN Security Council. Meanwhile, considering China’s rise leads to its more assertive foreign policy, there are a few clues to reveal that the United States will increase its military presence in Asia, either consolidating their well-established alliance with Japan, Korea (ROK) and Australia or expanding new trans-regional strategic partnership with India.

Yet, symbolically, the using the Forbidden City in this manner is a dramatic shift in either way. What was once known as the ‘palace of blood and tears’ is now being used for a state visit. This could be seen as China now facing a historic juncture: under Mao’s revolutionary leadership, the Chinese people stood up. Under Deng’s reform, the Chinese people became rich. And now, under Xi, the nation is becoming strong. He reiterated that “no country alone can handle all the challenges that mankind faces and no country can retreat into self-isolation”—a veiled critique of Trump’s America First foreign policy.

It is against this backdrop that Xi’s new era presents significant opportunities and challenges for Washington. American expert on China’s affairs Paul Haenle argued recently, it is therefore vital that Trump maintains a U.S. position of strength. Given that the United States is still wealthier and more powerful and resilient than any of its competitors, it is necessary to remain the more attractive model in the face of a Chinese alternative. Yet, the United States needs to strengthen its domestic foundations and continue to invest in the alliances, partnerships, and systems of rules and norms that have allowed it and countries across Asia to thrive under The Pax Americana.

In conclusion, Xi stressed that President Donald Trump’s visit to China was of great significance, which was not only a matter of great concern to both China and the US, but also attracting the attention of all countries in the world. It is also true that with concerted efforts of the two sides, the visit will yield positive and important results. To that end, Xi even briefed Trump at inquiry on China’s current economic and social development, including China’s strategic goals in the next 30 years. Trump did thank his Chinese counterpart for the considerate arrangement on his visit to China with praising China’s achievements in economic, social and diplomatic fields.

However, as a superpower for so long time and lonely as well, it takes some time for the United States and its people to welcome new equal partners in global governance. In so doing, China does indeed need both power and patience.

* Yang Yizhong is a student majored in Public Diplomacy, SIPA, Jilin University

Wang Li is Professor of International Relations and Diplomacy at the School of International and Public Affairs, Jilin University China.

Continue Reading
Comments

East Asia

China’s export of higher education

Published

on

The West is becoming increasingly more concerned about the attempts of communist China to expand its global network of influence. Still, there are also several democratic states that are willing to closely cooperate with Beijing.

Three years ago, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban’s government forced the prestigious Budapest-based Central European University to be closed, because the founder of the university Hungarian-born American billionaire George Soros criticized Orban’s course of “unliberal democracy”.

Now, the Hungarian government is rapidly pressing ahead with its plan to open a Chinese university campus in Budapest, which will be the first Chinese higher education institution in the EU. The university in question is the Chinese Fudan University, which is one of China’s top schools that has recently been able to enter several global top 100 university lists.

If this happens, it will be a tremendous achievement for China, as not so long ago it itself was importing foreign universities. Now, Beijing will export a Chinese university campus to a member of the EU. This is significant because it will show the world that China is prospering.

The campus will be built by 2024 in an abandoned industrial area in the center of Budapest and able to accommodate 6,000 students from Hungary, China and other countries. The Hungarian government believes that this will improve the country’s higher education standards and attract Chinese investments and academics.

Secret documents recently leaked to Hungarian media outlets show that the 26-hectare campus will cost 1.8 billion dollars (1.5 billion euros), which is more than Hungary spent on higher education in 2019.

The Hungarian government will cover 20% of the costs from the state budget, while the remaining 1.5 billion dollars (1.2 billion euros) will be taken through loans from Chinese banks.According to the documents, the work will be done using Chinese-produced materials and Chinese construction workers.

Hungary’s top politicians are not concerned by the fact that in 2018 the Fudan University revoked the principle of academic freedom from its governing charter, which now stipulates that the university is loyal to the Chinese Communist Party.

Mayor of Budapest Gergely Karacsony doesn’t support the opening of the Fudan University campus in Hungary.

“I don’t understand why Hungary or Budapest should accept a Chinese university if not so long ago the Central European University – which offered open education and was privately funded – was forced out of the country. Now, the government wants to open a university that represents the ideology of the Chinese Communist Party and will cost billions in Hungarian taxpayer money,” Karacsony told the TV channel Euronews.

In recent years, China has engaged in active cooperation with Hungary and other Eastern European countries.

Hungary is the only EU member that has approved the use of the Chinese-produced Covid-19 vaccine Sinopharm, and it is the location of the largest Huawei logistics center outside of China.

Last year, the Hungarian government agreed to borrow 2 billion dollars (1.6 billion euros) from a Chinese state-owned bank to construct a railway connecting Budapest and the capital of Serbia Belgrade. This railway will be a part of China’s global Belt and Road Initiative.

The expansion of the Fudan University to Hungary is part of Beijing’s attempts to influence foreign opinion on China. Hungarians opposing the project are concerned that the Chinese government may use the Fudan University to engage in espionage in Europe. Hungary’s allies are also worried about the close relations between Budapest and Beijing.

Last week, German Minister of Foreign Affairs Heiko Maas called Hungary’s decision to block an EU statement accusing Beijing of cracking down on democracy in Hong Kong “absolutely incomprehensible”.

Meanwhile, the US Embassy in Budapest announced that Washington is cautious about the opening of the Fudan University campus in Hungary “as Beijing has a proven track record of using its higher-education institutions to gain influence and stifle intellectual freedom”.

Continue Reading

East Asia

Of Prejudice and Victimhood

Published

on

Many in China believe since the novel coronavirus outbreak, mainstream Western opinion has been on the opposite side of China. Further, media commentators and scholars in China also reckon the unprecedented Western hostility towards China since last year is the reflection of the West’s own past prejudices and fears of the Middle Kingdom. Interestingly, not many in the West are aware that the communist authorities in Beijing view the Western and the US-led “info war” is aimed more at influencing Chinese public opinion, and not the world opinion, against the CPC rule.  

***

Much before Trump-Pompeo combined “assault” on China and its ruling communist party, an article penned by a Singapore-based US researcher in Asia Times five years ago accused the communist party leadership of China of taking “victimhood” card to dizzying heights. Richard A. Bitzinger, the author, further claimed “every nation in the Asia-Pacific can claim, with some justification, to be a victim. Even Japan can declare its victimhood, as it was the first (and so far, only) target of nuclear weapons.” A well-known and globally respected scholar in South Korea wrote a decade ago: “the global community must speak with one voice and send China a clear message that it no longer views China as a victim of modern history.”

China Flaunting Victimhood

To most Chinese, including of course the ruling communist party, the above Western narrative demonstrates “the ignorance and prejudice its creators” have long held towards China. However, what Bitzinger and the South Korean professor Jongsoo Lee have been emphatically pointing out over the past decade or so is something new: it’s time China must shed “victim” mentality. The Western “irritation” as well as “impatience” with China playing victimhood or “century of humiliation” card had started following China’s unprecedented economic rise a couple of decades ago. More recently, the worldwide anti-Chinese victim mentality buzz, which was re-launched half a decade ago following China’s “aggression” and “assertiveness” in the South China Sea, reached a crescendo with the global spread of the Covid19 pandemic.

This explains why according to the Western narrative, in recent years China’s acute sense of “victimhood” has been more pronounced in the international politics arena. In June 2016, as the legal verdict was being awaited on China’s sweeping claims to SCS, the WSJ published a story entitled “The Danger of China’s Victim Mentality” and warned the international community of “Beijing lashing out if a ruling on SCS claims goes against it.” Suddenly, the global media was filled with similar “China against the world” op-ed commentaries. While some genuinely advised China to stop its obsession of playing the victim if the country seriously wished to advance as a society. Others were less charitable and warned China must shed “victim” mentality.  

Flawed Western Narrative

At another level, as according to Mark Tischler, a researcher at the Department of East Asian Studies, Tel Aviv University, the fundamental flaw in the Western narrative is, it often overlooks the fact that “China is the first power to challenge the United States” that truly rose from its post-colonial past. (Emphasis added) Perhaps oblivious of how much of China’s modern-day policy is driven by the collective trauma of “victimhood,” a former Indian foreign secretary opined recently that it was “to avenge the ‘Century of Humiliation’ that China endured in the hands of western imperial powers from roughly 1839-1840 to 1949.” The Chinese are pursuing unilateralism instead of compromise in SCS and their new brand of “wolf warrior” arrogance is replacing diplomacy of humility of the Zhou Enlai-Deng Xiaoping style, observed the veteran Indian diplomat who also served as ambassador in Beijing. In contrast, as Tischler put it, the major difference between Beijing’s and Western narrative on “century of humiliation” is, for China, it (century of humiliation) means “not just a grim lesson of the past, but also a warning about a possible future.” Hence, the (Chinese) narrative has created “a never again mentality.”

Much has been written and published in both Chinese and in English on China’s victimhood mentality. Yet the issue has not only not whittled away over the decades since the foundation of New China, instead under Xi Jinping “century of humiliation” has acquired the new meaning of “Chinese rejuvenation” or “Chinese dream,” as it were. Interestingly, in an attempt to twist the “one hundred years of humiliation” narrative into post-Mao or post-Tiananmen Chinese nationalism, some scholars in the West are calling it anti-Western or anti-US Chinese nationalism. Applauding Zheng Wang’s highly acclaimed (Columbia University Press, 2014) Never Forget National Humiliation: Historical Memory in Chinese Politics and Foreign Relations, Edward Friedman described the work as “a vivid and well-informed study of post-Mao nationalism and Chinese foreign policy…”  

Mao too was victim of “Century of Humiliation” Mentality

However, the truth is scholarly claims of “victimhood” being described as the new Chinese fig leaf for anti-West nationalism and to create post-Mao/pre-Mao “victimhood” dichotomy – as the current Western narrative wants us to believe, are fundamentally flawed. A recent article, for example, accuses the Communist Party of China (CPC) of manipulating the so-called victimhood as nothing less than “a cynical ploy to exploit Chinese history and the feelings of Chinese people.” It is pertinent to mention, though intangible, such a narrative has been receiving a lot of traction in the international media recently. Consider for example some of the following popular writings: “China doesn’t have to keep playing victim” in Foreign Policy (2018), “China playing victim after attacking Indian soldiers in Galwan” in theprint.in (2020), “The Danger of China’s Victim Mentality” in TWSJ (2016), “China’s dangerous sense of entitled victimhood” in Asia Times (2016), “China’s New Diplomacy: Victim No More” in Foreign Affairs (2003) and so on.

Though perhaps understudied in the West, like most intellectuals in the late Qing and Republican eras, Mao Zedong too was not only deeply disturbed by the Chinese “century of humiliation,” several of his foreign policy decisions in the early to mid-1950s were heavily influenced by the “victim” mentality. In a seminal paper jointly authored by China’s widely respected historian, professor Yang Kuisong, and his young protégé and a PhD candidate in Chinese history at the Pennsylvania University, Sheng Mao, have highlighted how Mao’s victim mentality impacted his decision which led to two Taiwan Strait crises in 1954-1955 and 1958 respectively. From both crises, according to Yang and Sheng, Mao’s gains were remarkably rewarding and psychologically productive. The first Taiwan Strait crisis – the shelling of Jinmen in 1954 – resulted in Mao succeeding in “forcing the United States to begin ambassador-level talks with China.” The outcome of the second Taiwan crisis in 1958 enabled Mao to declare: “The United States has put itself into our noose.” “The other thing Mao claimed to have achieved from the crises was confirmation of America being a ‘paper tiger’,” Yang and Sheng pointed out.  

Prejudice and Victimhood

Finally, as we talk of prejudice and victimhood, and as the scholars in the West have firmed up their resolve to force Beijing to “give up” playing “victim” card, one thing is crystal clear in the minds of the party leadership, i.e., riding on the past success of Mao’s playing “victim” mentality, the current Chinese leadership is too aware of how well the victimhood narrative has been serving China in its diplomatic strategies to put it aside anytime soon. Analyzing how China’s victimhood strategy was on full display at the Anchorage summit in Alaska two months ago, Drew Thompson, a visiting senior research fellow at the National University of Singapore, views the Chinese “victim” mentality narrative aimed more at the domestic audience than at the world populace at large. 

Well, speaking of prejudices and biases, Michael Barr, author of Who’s Afraid of China (2011) argued a decade ago that “fears of China often say as much about those who hold them as they do about the rising power itself.” The book has been described as holding mirror to Sino-Western relations in order to better understand ideas about modernity, history and international relations. Besides, it is indeed true the Western bias against China predates the “century of humiliation.” What is also historically undeniable is “on no other major civilization do self-regard, self-congratulation and denigration of the ‘Other’ run as deep, as they have in Western Europe and its overseas extensions,” observed a professor of economic history in a recent article “A Eurocentric Problem.” Not at all a surprise, historian Jeffery Wasserstrom wrote in his review of Barr’s book: “This short book provides a clear-eyed critique of the latest versions of Sinomania and Sinophobia.”

Where There Is a Wolf, There Is a Warrior

In conclusion, as mentioned above, not only China is not going to stop playing victim and behave like a “normal country,” as was recently on display during the first top level bilateral summit between the world’s two largest, hostile economies since President Biden took office. On the contrary, as many in the West fear, as Beijing perceives the US power as well as dominance continuously declining, China is likely to pursue expansionist policies unchecked. Unlike what many in the West see as the changing nature of the Chinese diplomacy, China knows it is pursuing the same Maoist strategy to “trap the US in the Chinese noose.” As regards the “wolf warriors,” an article did point out a year ago, the phrase was coined none other than China’s top diplomat himself. The use of the phrase was neither spontaneous nor a slip. Chinese have a saying: “Think thrice before you act!” On being asked recently to comment on “wolf warrior,” ambassador Liu Xiaoming, China’s seasoned diplomat, flaunting “victimhood,” offered a tongue in cheek explanation: where there is a “wolf”, there is a “warrior”.

Continue Reading

East Asia

The Unfolding Chinese Aggression against Taiwan

Published

on

The last few months have seen a heightened level of Chinese aggressive activity against Taiwan. Repeated incursions into its air and marine space, have become norm rather that rarity. There have been occasional pushbacks from the Taiwan military. The US administration too, has come up with nuanced statements, bordering on advise for the Chinese to behave rationally. The Chinese actions subsequently indicates its explicit contempt for whatever the Taiwan and the American governments are protesting about and there seems no reduction in the incessant Chinese movements aimed at challenging the sovereignty of Taiwan, politically and militarily.

So what actually is going through the minds of Xi Jinping’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) leadership. Is China going to invade Taiwan militarily and brush aside whatever little opposition is coming across through the US. Why for a change, the Chinese aggression has suddenly become more open and emphatic against Taiwan? If it has already planned to take over Taiwan militarily and the US administration is merely making a public show of its commitment to Taiwan Relations Act, 1979. Most importantly, if and when something like this happens whether it could lead to a war between the US and China. And what will be the security implications in the region, for countries like Japan, India and smaller ASEAN nations.

It is important to understand the strategic background of Chinese activities. The sudden spurt in the aggression against Taiwan has preceded the outbreak of dreaded Corona virus across the world. It is interesting that the virus actually did originate in China, whether intentionally or accidentally, and the timing of Chinese aggression in the region, Ladakh in India, around Senkaku Islands of Japan and Taiwan, has increased when the global attention has been shifted almost wholly to the pandemic. Also, these countries themselves along with other nations in the region, Thailand, Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia are also engaged badly in protecting respective economies against the onslaught of the virus.

While the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) sudden stop into the delayed investigations into the origin of Corona, seems curious and act itself probably require another investigation, strategically the timing seems perfect for China. While the countries in the region and world as a whole, seems distracted towards containing the impact of pandemic, the goings on in China, suddenly and miraculously, has become normal.

It initially directed its greater attention and military power against India. Continuing with its unofficial salami slicing strategic doctrine, it tried to occupy an important part of eastern Ladakh. However, with India being no pushover, that reacted with tremendous military build-up and even occupied some strategic tracts in the Kailash range, making the Chinese PLA vulnerable in Moldo and Spanggur Gap, it had to fall back on the policy of protracted negotiations followed by selective disengagements.

Unable to secure all its strategic objectives on the India front, China then moved on with a tactical strategy on Taiwan. It started with approach of intense intimidation, with the hope that the resolve of most political sections there will be severely dented. The international community will remain unsettled and uncertain about Chinese intentions, partly as a result of Corona and partly seeing this tactic for quite long.

The actions of Xi Jinping’s Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the last two-three years, have been extremely unsettling for the global community. It started off with unprecedented aggression in the south China Seas against all regional countries, occupying uninhabited islands, shoals and repeatedly getting into the maritime zones of other countries, claiming them to be its own, openly violating the United Nations International Convention on Laws of Sea (UNCLOS). After a while with opposition getting limited, it crafted a news strategy of creating new artificial islands on seas with strategic and security objectives.

The domestic clampdown on Hong Kong followed. A little bit of international condemnation and strong domestic protests notwithstanding, China was able to stifle the crisis subsequently. It followed with a major aggression against India. Once that was met with a fearsome and retaliatory pushback by India, China reportedly expanded its borders by occupying some uninhabited remote villages in smaller nations, Nepal and Bhutan. With Nepal completely locked in a domestic political turmoil and ruling dispensation having inexplicable affinity with the Chinese Ambassador in Kathmandu and the CCP, there was no murmurs of even diplomatic protests either. Bhutan being completely dependent upon India for its security, found India too involved with the unfolding domestic Corona crisis to directly get into the picture a la Doklam in 2017.

While CCP has grandiose plans to make China a great power by 2049, the centenary year of China’s communist rule, events seem to have increased its political and strategic appetite. A supposed unification of a renegade province, in the form of Taiwan, could well be the crowning glory for the CCP in the centenary year of its founding. More importantly, it could well turn out to be the biggest political victory for XI, if it materialises, at all.

The US currently is the only power that seems capable and willing, to protect and defend Taiwan. There are other regional powers like Australia, Japan and India who could well support and help Taiwan, protect its sovereignty. However, how far they will go and face China, strategically and militarily, is open to evolving situations.

A raging border and maritime dispute with both India and Japan should occupy minds of PLA planners. Though neither are strategic pushovers, especially India can actually give China a bloody nose, as happened in Ladakh in June last year. Japan too is concerned over Chinese moves and for the first time in decades, has started bolstering its latest weapon acquisitions besides of course, having the American security guarantees. But the Chinese moves against Senkaku islands, does indicate a significant bit of security threats to Japan, if and when Taiwan is invaded by China.

Australia too, has been facing a barrage of economic and psychological warfare in particular from China. Since the cancellation of the Belt and Road initiative (BRI) of China in Australia and a couple of other strategic infrastructural lease agreements, it too is facing Beijing’s ire. Though Anthony Blinken, the US Secretary of State just assured that his country will stand with Australia as an ally, it too is likely to face an increased amount of Chinese belligerence in the likelihood of Taiwan invasion.

Finally, the Chinese dilemma on Taiwan is squarely dependent upon the likely American reaction. Sooner or later, a lightning special forces attack on Taiwan, decapitating its formidable small military force is a real possibility. This possibility in fact, has been gamed and suggested by top US military generals too.

The important strategic factor for the global community is that China is one country that has repeatedly been violating international norms, rules, regulations and challenging an established order to fulfil its expansionist aggressive designs. If it is allowed to do so in case of Taiwan or no clear exposition of Taiwan’s sovereignty is made by major powers, the likelihood of erosion of others security in the region, will be a real possibility.

For the US, a mere repetition of standing with Taiwan and current ambiguity about its political status, will not do, any more. It along with the emerging Quad of Australia, India and Japan and may be, Vietnam and others later, should form a bulwark of defence and security of Taiwan, against Chinese aggression. Politically and militarily, if required, the world needs to come forward to protect the territorial integrity of Taiwan and make China accept that its land-grabbing tactics, by intimidation and false historical records, will no longer do. The days of redrawing territorial boundaries by force, are over and must not be accepted.

Continue Reading

Publications

Latest

East Asia2 hours ago

China’s export of higher education

The West is becoming increasingly more concerned about the attempts of communist China to expand its global network of influence....

Health & Wellness4 hours ago

Vaccine inequity triggers ‘huge disconnect’ between countries

Although COVID-19 cases and deaths continue to decline globally for a second consecutive week, the UN health agency chief said...

Environment6 hours ago

Virtual Ocean Dialogues 2021 to focus on climate, food and nature

A resilient and abundant ocean is essential to tackling climate change and key to providing sustainable food and jobs that...

Americas8 hours ago

U.S. And Its Allies Try to Split The World in Two

America’s response to the increasing economic success of China and other nations that until recent decades were impoverished former colonies...

Intelligence10 hours ago

Pakistan is Not Duplicitous When It Comes to Militancy – It is Just Trapped

Pakistan’s Dilemma Pakistan being labeled as duplicitous today when it comes to militancy by external governments and the international media...

South Asia12 hours ago

A Skeptic view of Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code

On 25, February 2021, the Information and Broadcast Minister of India released the Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code....

Economy14 hours ago

Summit of Business within Portuguese-Speaking Countries

Long before the Portuguese-speaking countries wrapped up their first business summit in Simpopo, Equatorial Guinea that gathered approximately 250 government...

Trending