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Behind the arrangement of “state visit plus” for President Trump in China

Wang Li

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Authors: Wang Li & Yang Yi-zhong*

According to a conventional argument, with no heir apparent and his power firmly consolidated, Chinese President Xi Jinping is at the height of his authority when U.S. President Trump made his first state visit last week. On October 18, Xi’s inaugurating message was clear: China is already a superpower and should begin to act like one.

This should be a wake-up call for the United States. North Korea is certainly an urgent security issue that needs to be resolved. But Trump has to widen his focus to counter China’s increasingly assertive foreign policy and address challenges to U.S. leadership in the region. Given this, the world media once again focused on Trump’s visit to China and the meetings followed between Trump and Xi Jinping.

But in Chinese eyes, this is Trump’s first visit to China since he assumed the presidency in February, and also a “unforgettable” trip to China, as he said, because Xi and his wife welcomed Trump’s couple with a special arrangement of “state visit plus”. In foreign affairs, protocol is commonly described as a set of international courtesy rules including high-standard reception. In view of this common practice, President Xi Jinping and his wife welcomed their state guests with an informal afternoon tea and then formal dinner at the Palace Museum, also called “the Forbidden City”. Why?

First is to show Chinese traditional culture. When President Xi Jinping visited Mar-a-Lago last April, President Trump offered a hospitable and considerate reception to Xi and his wife with high-standard and thoughtful arrangements being made in all respects. Since China is known as a nation that courtesy calls for reciprocity, Beijing attached great importance to President Trump’s visit to China. As the Forbidden City embodies both the ancient splendor of the Chinese culture and mirrors the vicissitudes of modern China, it serves as an indispensable window to learn about the Chinese aspiration for the greatness in the world. It was during the tour in the Forbidden City where President Xi lost no time to reveal the core parts of Chinese thinking on the world order in the new century, that is, the harmony should be the supreme mean (way) of the human society. China will be dedicated to create a new-type of great power relationship in light of shared destiny of global community.

Second is to present the mutual respect. Also in the Forbidden City, President Trump showed President Xi a video of his grand-daughter Arabella Kushner singing in Mandarin and reciting the ancient Chinese poetry. That video has been shared and reposted enthusiastically by Chinese netizens many times. In terms of the concept of “public diplomacy”, Arabella acted as the little ambassador of China-US friendship since she is adored by the Chinese people across the country. This special episode is very heart-warming indeed, as it was reported that Xi’s couple were deeply impressed by Arabella’s excellence in Chinese. It can be said that certain social groups of America including the “First Family” of the United States have revealed their respects to Chinese culture and classical values. Given this, it is important to bring closer the distance between the Chinese and American people through their common interests and the shared responsibilities as the two largest economic giants.

Obviously, from the very beginning, Xi Jinping and Trump have worked to forge a mutual respect and trust in their personal ties. Because of this, both of them liked to have small-group and informal interactions, which gave them enough time and room to have an in-depth and strategic exchange of views on major issues of common interest. And the exchange of views can help the two powers to enhance mutual understanding and mutual trust in the future. Yet, behind this point, we can discern that Trump has received an honour in Beijing not granted to any U.S. President since the ice-breaking trip to China by former President Nixon in 1972. As the Forbidden City was the historic palace that housed Chinese emperors and their families for over 600 years, dining in the Forbidden City is indeed a significant honour for Trump and his family, in keeping with what China’s Ambassador to the U.S. Cui Tiankai had promised would be a “state visit-plus.”

However, the relations between China and the United States are essentially related to “high politics” that involves security issues, trade disputes and the balance of power. In his meetings with Xi, Trump talked firmly about the DPRK-related resolutions of the UN Security Council. President Xi made it clear that China earnestly fulfills its due international obligations in light of the resolutions of UN Security Council. Meanwhile, considering China’s rise leads to its more assertive foreign policy, there are a few clues to reveal that the United States will increase its military presence in Asia, either consolidating their well-established alliance with Japan, Korea (ROK) and Australia or expanding new trans-regional strategic partnership with India.

Yet, symbolically, the using the Forbidden City in this manner is a dramatic shift in either way. What was once known as the ‘palace of blood and tears’ is now being used for a state visit. This could be seen as China now facing a historic juncture: under Mao’s revolutionary leadership, the Chinese people stood up. Under Deng’s reform, the Chinese people became rich. And now, under Xi, the nation is becoming strong. He reiterated that “no country alone can handle all the challenges that mankind faces and no country can retreat into self-isolation”—a veiled critique of Trump’s America First foreign policy.

It is against this backdrop that Xi’s new era presents significant opportunities and challenges for Washington. American expert on China’s affairs Paul Haenle argued recently, it is therefore vital that Trump maintains a U.S. position of strength. Given that the United States is still wealthier and more powerful and resilient than any of its competitors, it is necessary to remain the more attractive model in the face of a Chinese alternative. Yet, the United States needs to strengthen its domestic foundations and continue to invest in the alliances, partnerships, and systems of rules and norms that have allowed it and countries across Asia to thrive under The Pax Americana.

In conclusion, Xi stressed that President Donald Trump’s visit to China was of great significance, which was not only a matter of great concern to both China and the US, but also attracting the attention of all countries in the world. It is also true that with concerted efforts of the two sides, the visit will yield positive and important results. To that end, Xi even briefed Trump at inquiry on China’s current economic and social development, including China’s strategic goals in the next 30 years. Trump did thank his Chinese counterpart for the considerate arrangement on his visit to China with praising China’s achievements in economic, social and diplomatic fields.

However, as a superpower for so long time and lonely as well, it takes some time for the United States and its people to welcome new equal partners in global governance. In so doing, China does indeed need both power and patience.

* Yang Yizhong is a student majored in Public Diplomacy, SIPA, Jilin University

Wang Li is Professor of International Relations and Diplomacy at the School of International and Public Affairs, Jilin University China.

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East Asia

Standing up to China: Czech mayor sets a high bar

Dr. James M. Dorsey

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A Czech mayor’s refusal to endorse Beijing’s One China policy potentially sets a high bar as Western powers grapple with how to respond to allegations of excessive use of violence by police against Hong Kong protesters and the implications of leaked documents detailing a brutal crackdown in China’s north-western province of Xinjiang.

Prague mayor Zdenek Hrib rejected a sister city agreement between the Czech capital and Beijing in late October because it included a clause endorsing the One China policy, which implicitly recognizes China’s sovereignty over Taiwan, as well as Hong Kong and Tibet.

Mr. Hrib argued that the agreement was a cultural arrangement and not designed to address foreign policy issues that were the prerogative of the national government.

The mayor’s stance has since taken on added significance against the backdrop of US President Donald J. Trump’s signing of legislation that allows for the sanctioning of Hong Kong officials, embarrassing Communist party leaks that document repression in Xinjiang, the election of a new Sri Lankan government that intends to adopt a tougher policy towards China, and simmering anti-Chinese sentiment in Central Asia and beyond.

Mr. Hrib’s rejection was in fact a reflection of anti-Chinese sentiment in the Czech Republic as well as opposition to the pro-China policy adopted by Czech president Milos Zeman.

To be sure, Mr. Hrib, a 38-year old medical doctor who interned in Taiwan, was shouldering little political or economic risk given Czech public anger at China’s failure to fulfil promises of significant investment in the country.

On the contrary, Mr. Hrib, since becoming mayor in mid-2018, appears to have made it his pastime to put Mr. Zeman on the spot by poking a finger at China.

Mr. Hrib visited Taiwan in the first six months of his mayorship, flew the Tibetan flag over Prague’s city hall, and rejected a request by the Chinese ambassador at a meeting with foreign diplomats to send Taiwanese representatives out of the room.

Beijing’s cancellation of a tour of China by the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra in response to Mr. Hrib’s provocations forced Mr. Zeman to describe the Chinese retaliation as “excessive” and his  foreign minister, Tomas Petricek, to declare that “diplomacy is not conducted with threats.”

Perhaps more importantly, M. Hrib was taking a stand based on principles and values rather than interests. In doing so, he was challenging the new normal of world leaders flagrantly ignoring international law to operate on the principle of might is right.

“Our conscience is not for sale,” said Michaela Krausova, a leading member of the governing Pirate Party of the Prague city council. Ms. Krausova and Mr. Hrib’s party was founded to shake up Czech politics with its insistence on the safeguarding of civil liberties and political accountability and transparency.

While couched in terms of principle, Mr. Hrib’s stand strokes with newly installed Sri Lankan president Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s intention to wrest back control from China of the island’s strategic Hambantota port that serves key shipping lanes between Europe and Asia.

Hambantota became a symbol of what some critics have charged is Chinese debt trap diplomacy after Sri Lanka was forced to hand over the port to China in 2017 on a 99-year lease because the government was unable to repay loans taken to build it.

“I believe that the Sri Lankan government must have control of all strategically important projects like Hambantota. The next generation will curse our generation for giving away precious assets otherwise,” Mr. Rajapaksa said.

Fears of a debt trap coupled with the crackdown on Turkic Muslims in Xinjiang, which targets not only Uighurs, but also groups that trace their roots to Central Asian countries, have fuelled anti-Chinese sentiment in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan.

“Given that China is likely to continue to expand its presence, further irritating local publics, the temptation of opposition groups to exploit such anger will only grow. If that happens…the anti-Chinese demonstrations that have taken place to date will be only the prelude to a situation that could easily spiral out of control, ethnicizing politics in these countries still further,” said Central Asia scholar Paul Goble.

Beyond Xinjiang, anti-Chinese sentiment in Central Asia is fuelled by some of the same drivers that inform Czech attitudes towards China.

The shared drivers include unfulfilled promises, idle incomplete Chinese-funded infrastructure projects, widespread corruption associated with Chinese funding, and the influx of Chinese labour and materials at the expense of the local work force and manufacturers.

Beyond Xinjiang, Central Asians worry about potential debt traps. The Washington-based Center for Global Development listed last year two Central Asian nations, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, as risking China-related “debt distress.”

Warned China and Central Asia scholar Ayjaz Wani: “Chinese principles in Central Asia are hegemonic. China has always interacted with Central Asian states without regarding their cultural identities, but according to its own vested interests… However, the ongoing anti-China sentiments may be coming to a tipping point.

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Old wine in new bottles: Chinese containment policy in South Asia

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A lot of discussion in international relations scholarship is concentrated upon how US maximizing its security presence in the Asia-Pacific region. It is trying to contain, growing Chinese Influence to protect its national interest.It was described by former US President Barack Obama as a pivot Asia policy. But in the case of South Asia, United States is strengthening its ties with India to boost it as a force to contain Chinese emerging influence. It was termed by John J Mearsheimer as buck-passing in which a world superpower will give power and authority to another state to try to contain the influence of an emerging world hegemon. The Indo-US nuclear deal and former President Barack Obama’s remarks about the inclusion of India inthe United Nations Security council demonstrates that the United States is helping India to rise as the regional hegemon. India considers itself as an important actor at international level.It is increasing its political clout internationally but in South Asia, it can face a new kind of isolation. This is evident from the three recent events that occurred in a span of only 10 days in the first half of October

On 07th October Pakistan’s Prime Minister Imran Khan visited China with high-level delegation. He met there with Chinese President Xi Jinping and other important officials, it was his third visit to China since he came into power. During the meeting, both leaders, Imran Khan and Xi Jinping, discussed strengthening bilateral relations which are already at a higher level in terms of military and economic partnership. China is already working on a project to invest more than $50 billion under the name of China Pakistan Economic corridor let alone the cooperation on strategic and political issues. During the course of the visit, officials from both sides discussed Free Trade agreement which will be helpful in solving the problem of trade deficit for Pakistan. Total trade volume between China and Pakistan is around $15 billion in which Chinese export to Pakistan is of 13 billion. This Free Trade Agreement will open up about 90% of the Chinese market to Pakistan and will reduce trade deficit. During his meeting with Imran Khan, Xi Jinping accepted Kashmir as a disputed region and asked both parties to solve it through peaceful means.

All this happened just a few days before the visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to India.Although both countries have made some progress on economy-related issues, no concrete efforts have been made to solve more radical issues like Indo-China border dispute in the northern Himalayan region. However more astonishing for India was that Xi Jinping visited Nepal after India. Nepal is a landlocked country crammed between two South Asia giants India and China. India is present on three sides of Nepal and considers it as its backyard. Both countries did have very solid relations and 60% of total Nepalese trade is done with India. In 2015 when Nepal adopted new constitution, relations between both countries soured. Although it was the internal matter of Nepal, India put an unofficial blockade for Nepal, which stopped all the supplies including food and medicine. Blockade continued for more than two months and it created a severe crisis because Nepal was already damaged by a strong earthquake in early 2015 in which more than 9000 people died. This blocked proved decisive in changing behavior of Nepalese leadership though they were complaining of Indian hegemonic role for many years. Nepal turned toward China for their needs. China also responded in a very positive way. Besides reconstructing earthquake effected areas, China also provided 1.03 million liters of fuel. In 2017 Nepal signed China’s Belt and Road initiative and pledged to construct a railway line which will connect China with Nepal directly. This initiated a new beginning in China-Nepal relations.

When Xi Jinping arrived at Katmandu, China by this time was thelargest foreign direct investor in Nepal.It was the first visit by any Chinese president in the last 23 years.During the course of his visit, 18 agreements were signed between Nepal and China, including a railway link between China and Nepal.

These three important tours in less than ten days present the new geopolitical reality of the region. Although the Chinese president visited India but this visit was sandwiched between Imran Khan’s visit to China and Xi Jinping’s visit to Nepal. Pakistan is an arch-rival of India in South Asia and Nepal which historically remained in the Indian sphere of influence,  is slowly slipping away from it.it clearly demonstrates containment policy by China in which China is progressively growing its influence in South Asian states. The Story does not end with Pakistan and Nepal but other South Asian states like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka now also have very strong ties with China.it represents in a new normal situation in which South Asian region is no longer dominated by India. Though India is showing to the world that it is solely protecting peace and stability in the region but reality has changed In fact South Asian states consider it as dominating power evident from its relation with Pakistan and blockade of Nepal. With growing Chinese influence in South Asia containment of India is now very much a reality.

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How Australia is becoming China’s Australia

Sisir Devkota

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If it were not for China, Australia’s population inroad scheme would take a serious hit. Out of more than 0.7 million international students, more than 30% Chinese are pursuing degrees in universities. Australia lives along the values of  the Western culture, but when it comes to its economy, rather dishonourably; it has had to lean towards the East. Chinese consumerism compensates for a healthy Australian economy and while it stands stronger on its democratic values, Australia, now faces a paradoxical relationship with the Asian hegemon. For instance, it is quietly ignoring the protests in Hong Kong. During recent elections, the Australian Prime Minister was mocked on WeChat; his funny nuances were subject to ridicule in the Chinese social media.

Now, Australia is facing the task. It is fighting a battle to save its identity against a consumer band, governed by communist policies. China’s message is clear; an interference of any sort is not welcome, else the consequences are going to be economical. Emancipated Chinese students in Australia have been protesting against the government backlash in Hong Kong. Resultantly, back home in China, apartments were raided and their parents taught the lesson of conformity. A lesson of nationalism that has blossomed outside its territories. Australia is swallowing up the hypocrisy. On its own land, it cannot protect the values of freedom and democracy.

Wang LiQiang or as he would like to be known as “William”, took to the Australian authorities for his involvement in spying activities. In his own admission, William was conducting intelligence operations and most significantly, assassinations on Australian soil. William is only one among high profile spies that have been operating in Australia. Ironically, his testament sufficiently reflects the Australian attitude towards Chinese interference, which has essentially been negligent and non-conversational. Notably, William’s particular mention about operating a system of political donation will nevertheless disturb Australian administrators. They will realize that it is only about time when China will explicitly begin to reassert its influence. The police did not find Wang Li Qiang; instead, he volunteered to surrender. Especially, coming from a senior Chinese operative, the message could not be clearer.

On the outset, China and Australia maintain a well-documented “good relationship”. However, administrative hierarchies in Canberra are also accused of implying a very positive attitude towards presenting and defending bilateral ties. As much as economic interests have motivated the Australian behaviour of non-acceptance, politicians do not shy away from painting an over simplified picture of Chinese problems that are realistically, complex in nature. As Prime Minister Scott Morrison handled the allegations of a Chinese backed ring that was trying to plot a spy in the parliament; the government has tried too hard to overlook the obvious. Mr. Morrison urged his citizens to not draw anxious conclusions, instead; he suggested that Australia would need to be vigilant from the threats that it faced more broadly. The substitutability of discourse that is apparent in Australian politics, marks a rather gifted trade-off for China and its actions. Andrew Hastie, parliamentary head of intelligence and security, claimed that such incidents did not surprise him. As more evidences would suggest, Chinese interference was knocking at the doors.

In terms of China, there are two faces of Australian political rhetoric. One that is motivated by the larger interests in the administrative chairs of governance, overlooking the infiltration for personal benefits. Secondly, the critiques emanating from opposition politicians and the likes of intelligence chiefs, for instance ASIO’s former Directorate General, Duncan Lewis, warned that China would take over Australia in a matter of time. Elsewhere in the borders of the communist giant, two Australian MP’s were denied travel entry, citing largely undetermined reasons. With a population of merely 25 million inhabitants, 1.8 million Chinese students have migrated to Australia for education. The dragon is marching towards the continent, in a first, the troops are ready on site.

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