According to the United Nations, there are three times more internal migrants than international migrants in the world. However, these migrants command much less attention in political debate and planning processes than international migrants.
In addition, most migrants settle in cities and yet statistics on the number of migrants in cities are limited, particularly in developing economies where this information could inform better urban planning and ensure the preparedness of cities for migration.
In this context, as mandated by the World Economic Forum Future of Urban Development and Services Initiative Steering and Advisory Committees, the Forum explored the types, causes and patterns of migration, the most affected corridors and cities, the impact on urban infrastructure and services, the practical solutions and how cities can future-proof themselves to address this growing challenge.
The report highlights how cities can more efficiently and effectively deliver urban infrastructure and services to meet the needs of migrants and achieve long-term migrant integration with a high-level framework. This framework addresses the perception problem around migrants, their level of community engagement, policy reforms, inclusive urban planning mechanisms that cater to the long-term needs of migrants and the importance of responsive, outward-looking and action-oriented city leadership. In preparing and planning for migration, the report emphasizes the role of:
- Local government in mainstreaming migration in local development, collecting migrant data that feeds into urban planning, partnering with media organizations to disseminate evidence-based statistics on migration and implementing integration measures through a multistakeholder approach consisting of migrant communities, international organizations, civil society and the private sector
- Migrant communities in participating in decision-making forums and support cities by articulating their interests towards establishing their rights
- Civil society in undertaking integration programmes with the support of cities to assist newcomers and encouraging migrants to become part of NGOs that could help other migrants facing similar challenges
- International organizations in engaging city leaders as advocates for formally including cities in developing migration policies
- Private sector in adhering to responsible recruitment and employment practices, while closing skill-gap requirements, and working with cities in designing long-term integration strategies to address anti-immigration sentiments
“Migrants are drawn to cities in search of economic, social and creative opportunities. As this trend will continue, we hope this report will assist city leaders in identifying best practice solutions to address the most pressing challenges presented by migration and provide a more informed cities’ perspective for the forthcoming United Nations Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration,” said Alice Charles, Lead, Cities, World Economic Forum.
The report captures the stories of 22 of the most affected cities around the world, including from North America (Montreal, Ottawa, Calgary, New York, Boston), Latin America (São Paulo, Medellin), Middle East and North Africa (Dubai, Amman, Ramallah), sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town, Dakar), Asia (Pune, Surat, Guangzhou, Davao City), Europe (Berlin, Athens, Paris, Amsterdam, Rotterdam) and Oceania (Auckland). Each city has highlighted its key migration challenges and the solutions implemented or initiated, as well as the lessons that other cities can learn from their experience.
“Cities are increasingly collaborating between themselves, within countries and across them, learning from each other and replicating best practices. Partnerships between cities will have greater prominence in the years to come, with possibilities of migrant redistribution and responding to labour market needs with immigrants,” said Gregory Hodkinson, Chairman, Arup Group Ltd; Chair of the World Economic Forum Future of Urban Development and Services Initiative.
He emphasized that city coalition networks enable cities to exchange ideas, solutions and best practices, as well as presenting opportunities to address implementation gaps by incorporating past learnings in addressing the challenges of migration.
In an effort to pave a path towards more sustainable development, the UN agreed the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 193 member states in September 2015. The SDGs recognize that well-managed migration will play an integral role in achieving sustaining development and SDG 11 is specifically dedicated to cities, with the objective to “Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable”.
“If migration is to be properly managed in our cities and sustainable development realized, it will require the cooperation of all stakeholders at the national, regional and global levels. Cities must identify the main legal and administrative priorities they need to address in order to enable the integration and adequate protection of migrants, particularly those not eligible for the same legal entitlements as refugees. They need to collaborate with national governments and with other stakeholders, including the private and non-governmental sectors, to overcome existing and future barriers to migrant integration,” said Louise Arbour, Special Representative of the Secretary-General for International Migration, United Nations.
Hazem Galal, Global Cities and Government Leader, PwC, said: “One of the biggest challenges faced by cities is integrating and offering services to migrants. By capitalizing on the skills migrants have to offer, cities can either enhance their competitiveness or increase the overall cost on their welfare system resulting from unemployment. By incentivizing private sector engagement and developing a working partnership, cities can ensure positive outcomes for migrants.”
Taking advantage of the competition between businesses and the overlapping interests to improve the state of urban infrastructure and services, public-private collaboration can play an essential role in facilitating migrants given the level of innovation and their capacity to efficiently raise and administer funds.
Regional City Networks: Bringing the 4IR to Small and Medium-Sized Cities
The World Economic Forum is launching two regional networks of cities in Latin America and South Asia to share knowledge on smart city development while protecting public interests related to privacy, security and sustainability. Under the umbrella of the Forum’s G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance the two city networks will connect leading pioneer cities from the Global Alliance with smaller cities in the region.
Smart city technology improves sustainability, resiliency and quality of life, but about 50% of the world’s urban population live in smaller or medium-sized cities. With cyberattacks on municipalities rising and digital technologies becoming central to economic competitiveness, these cities need to invest in new technologies, but have less capacity than their larger global counterparts to implement the ensure effective governance.
Set up in Medellín and Mumbai, the networks will be hosted by the Centres for the Fourth Industrial Revolution in Colombia and India, and efforts will be supported by partners of the World Economic Forum and the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution (C4IR) Global Network. The roll out follows the successful establishment of this model in a number of Japanese cities, led by the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Japan.
Cities in Latin America and India will be invited to meet regularly to analyse smart city policies and will receive technical support from the Forum’s network of global experts. Founding members of the Regional Alliance for Latin America are Bogotá, Colombia; Brasília, Brazil; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Córdoba, Argentina; Medellín, Colombia and Mexico City, Mexico. Founding members of the National Alliance for India are Bengaluru, Bhopal, Faridabad, Hyderabad, Indore, Kohima, Mangalore, Raipur, Shillong and Thane.
“When we launched the G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance during Japan’s presidency, we could see city governments asking for global best practices that would allow them to compete in a global, tech-driven economy. But we also knew that smaller cities would struggle to implement these practices without local support,” said Chizuru Suga, Head of the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Japan. “That is why we launched the global alliance in parallel with a national initiative to unite cities across Japan for adapting and sharing global best practices.”
“For over a year now, Kaga City has been sharing knowledge with 12 other cities to make sure we have the policies we need to deploy technology quickly and safely,” said Riku Miyamoto, Mayor of Kaga City. “We can learn from global best practices and still get a local perspective on issues that matter to our residents.”
“Latin America is home to some of the most exciting initiatives in smart cities today, but that success is not evenly spread,” said José Manuel Restrepo, Minister of Trade, Industry and Tourism of Colombia. “Colombia is honoured to take on the task of coordinating the regional activities of the G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance in Latin America, so that cities across the region can benefit from both global and regional knowledge exchange.”
“India already has one of the world’s most ambitious smart city programmes, driven by the Government of India’s Smart Cities Mission,” said Purushottam Kaushik, Head of the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution India. “Now with input from the G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance, Indian cities will have access to the world’s foremost expertise in smart city policy-making.”
“India’s Smart Cities Mission is dedicated to being at the forefront of policy innovation in data and technology for the urban sector. With the launch of the National Urban Digital Mission we hope to scale new heights,” said Kunal Kumar, Joint Secretary, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India. “The G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance being extended to regional alliances in India, led by the World Economic Forum, is a pathway in that direction.”
Moscow to host international online forum – the Smart Cities Moscow
On May, 25-26 Moscow will host the Smart Cities Moscow, international online forum dedicated to the development of smart cities and current topics of adaptation of the urban environment to the realities of the “new normal”.
The forum hosts over 50 speakers, including heads of administrations of the world’s largest megacities, professors and experts from the world’s leading educational institutions, business representatives and international experts in the field of informatization and development of smart cities.
Smart Cities Moscow Forum will bring together speakers from countries and cities boasting the best urban infrastructure in the world, based on advanced IT technologies. The online format of the event provides a unique opportunity for millions of people from around the world to join sessions and participate in discussions. The event will become a prologue to the Smart Cities Moscow offline forum, which will be held in 2022.
As part of a series of online conferences, international and Russian experts will discuss how large metropolitan areas are being transformed in the modern conditions, dictated by the society and environment. Speakers will share the best success stories for the development of healthcare, city transport logistics, telecommunications, culture and education of the city.
The business program will cover three major areas: Smart city’s infrastructure and technologies, Smart City for a Smart Living, and Smart city’s sustainability. The experts will discuss urban development in the post-covid period, changes in the sustainable development strategy, infrastructure challenges and the deployment of IoT, Big Data, and AI technologies. The sessions will also focus on city renewable energy, creation of a favorable urban environment, and other topical issues. Various communication formats are provided within the framework of the forum: from panel discussions and expert sessions, to show-cases and case studies.
The Forum is supported by The Government of Moscow, Department of Information Technologies.
Cities and Pandemics: Towards a more just, green and healthy future
A new report on pandemics and cities from UN-Habitat, points the way to how hard-hit urban centres can reduce the impact of future outbreaks and become more equitable, healthy and environmentally friendly.
‘Cities and Pandemics: Towards a more just, green and healthy future’, launched on Tuesday, describes how urban areas have been at the forefront of the COVID-19 crisis.
“95 per cent of all cases” were recorded in cities in the first months of the pandemic, Maimunah Mohd Sharif, UN-Habitat Executive Director, said.
Cities on the frontline
“Throughout this pandemic, it has been up to local governments and communities to move quickly and decisively to stop the spread of COVID-19 and ensure an effective response,” Ms. Sharif added.
Despite these pressures, many local governments and community leaders responded quickly and effectively to prevent the spread of the pandemic and mitigate its effects.
The UN-Habitat report recommends actions for a sustainable recovery based on evidence from more than 1,700 cities.
Life and death inequalities
It found that patterns of inequality, due to a lack of access to basic services, poverty and overcrowded living conditions, have been key destabilising factors in increasing the scale and impact of COVID-19.
Eduardo Moreno, Head of Knowledge and Innovation at UN-Habitat, said that due to the pandemic, an estimated “120 million people in the world will be pushed into poverty and living standards will reduce by 23 per cent”.
“The conclusion is that income matters”, he added.
According to the text, urban leaders and planners must rethink how people move through and in cities, using lessons learned from the last year of COVID-19.
This includes an increased focus at the local level on planning neighbourhoods and communities that are multi-functional and inclusive.
The report explores how well-planned cities combining residential and commercial with public spaces, along with affordable housing, can improve public health, the local economy and the environment.
It calls for cities to be at the forefront of moves towards a Social Contract between governments, the public, civil society and private sector.
The new social contract should “explore the role of the state and cities to finance universal basic income, universal health insurance, universal housing”, said Sharif.
For one real-world example, Claudia Lopez Hernandez, Mayor of Bogota, explained how in the Colombian capital, their new social contract prioritises women and children.
It is a “social contract that includes women, that provides them with time, with time to take care of themselves, with time to educate themselves, and with time and education skills to come back to the labour market”.
“To have self-sustainable women is to have self-sustainable societies”, Hernandez explained.
The Report outlines how a new normal can emerge in cities “where health, housing and security are prioritised for the most vulnerable, not only out of social necessity, but also from a profound commitment to human rights for all.”
This requires governments to focus on policies to protect land rights, improve access to water, sanitation, public transport, electricity, health and education facilities and ensure inclusive digital connectivity.
The Report recommends strengthening access to municipal finance to enable city leaders to build a new urban economy that reduces disaster risk as well as addressing climate change by developing nature-based solutions and investing in sustainable infrastructure to enable low carbon transport.
The Cities and Pandemics Report makes it clear that the way urban environments recover from the pandemic, will have a major impact on the global effort to achieve a sustainable future for all – in line with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
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