Authors: Wang Li, Sun Fangfang*
For a long time, the leaders of the Communist countries including China have been described as the technocrats with little creativity and fully-ideological orientated. But Kissinger has opined the past Chinese leaders Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping and current President Xi Jin-ping and his generation quite differently.
He argued that as each previous leader, from Mao to Deng, distilled his own era’s particular vision of China’s needs to the successive generations, the Xi’s leadership has clearly sought to build on these legacies by undertaking a massive globally-oriented reform program of the Deng’s era while upholding the Mao’s philosophy of “having people’s interest as the priority”.
Belonging to the post-revolution generation who were born and grew up after 1950, Xi has several unique features as the supreme leader of China, which is today the largest and economically most dynamic emerging power in the world. First he was staffed in the Chinese Department of Defense and then was on the field-study in the United States when he was a junior official in the 1980s. In addition, Xi was educated in social science rather than natural science and technology like his precedents. Given that a college degree in China is based on a Western-style curriculum, not a legacy of the Confucius’ doctrines, contemporary Chinese leaders are more influenced by their knowledge of the global affairs and domestic issues as well. The composition of the core members of the CPC Politburo headed by Xi undoubtedly reflects China’s evolution toward participating in—and even shaping—global affairs.
On October 25 at the end of the CPCNational Congress, Xi revealed six other members of the Standing Committee of the Politburo (PBSC) and all have one major similarity: they fully support the leading role of President Xi Jinping. Although the “first among equals” was previously well-established as the cardinal point among the PBSC, there is no question about who is driving the agenda in Beijing. Kevin Rudd, former prime minister of Australia, went to call President Xi as the paramount leader of China who “has an iron grip on power and a strategy to reach global pre-eminence.” To certain extent, it is simple because Xi has further strengthened his position and is now China’s most powerful leader since Mao and Deng. For example, he has maintained an iron grip on the party through an anti-corruption campaign that has seen 278,000 officials punished, with 440 at ministerial rank and above involved. The campaign will go on since the CPC National congress pointed to Xi continuing as China’s paramount leader beyond the next five years, and possibly for the next 15 years; and also his well-articulated mission aims to make China become a major global power by 2030. Due to this, now the world is waiting to see how the selected men (PBSC) might offer insights into Xi’s priorities for the new leadership and for his own governance in the new era.
Firstly, “A new era needs a new look” stated by Xi during his hours-long speech to the CPC National Congress. True, all members of the new PBSC are in their 60s, meaning all have had extensive experiences during Mao’s revolutionary time and Deng’s reform and openness decades. As politics is more attentive to practical experiences than abstract ideas, the new core leaders have not only demonstrated their comprehensive leadership from the grass-rooted level to national level, but also a perceived global destiny guided a strategy which are required for any great historical mission.
Secondly, “Making China strong again” – also called “the Chinese Dream” – aims to pursue not just a modernization of all aspects of Chinese culture, but invites China’s people to aspire to be a leading power, rather than mere participant. In the international system, Xi’s address at the Congress was titled as “Secure a Decisive Victory in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects and Strive for the Great Success of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era” spoke repeatedly about the “new era” in which China would take its rightful place as a major world power. “It will be an era that sees China moving closer to center stage,” as Xi told the Congress. In order to assure national mission successful, Chinese leaders reveal their strategic wisdom, vision and maturity. For example, the standing committee of the (PBSC) has 7 core members, among them 2 were strictly educated in the discipline of international relations. This is truly a rare case in China. In addition, Xi has indicated – albeit obliquely – a growing rivalry with the United States in terms of soft power, remarking “[China] offers a new option for other countries and nations who want to speed up their development while preserving their independence.”
Finally, since “Xi’s Thoughts for the New Era of Socialism with Chinese Special Traits” is now a written part of the constitution of the Chinese Communist Party, this means that elements of Xi’s political philosophy will have a definitive presence in information spread throughout the country: media reports, government policy and school curricula. Equally evident, questioning his policies or even philosophy is now equal to challenging those of Mao and Deng – political blasphemy in China. As an honor was previously only given to Mao – the founder of modern China and Deng – responsible for its economic prowess, it begins the third era which is legitimate in succession to the distinct periods so far – that of revolution and creation under Mao, and economic opening and modernization under Deng. Yet, Xi outlined two phases for the grand rise of China: from 2020-2035, it will become a “fully modern” economy and society; this to be followed by a further 15 years to 2050, when China’s quest for national wealth and power will come to fruition as it assumes great power status. In Xi’s words, by then China will assume “a global leadership of composite national strength and international influence.”
Over the last week, many messages from around globe have talked about the 19th National Congress of CPC. Former Greek PM Papandreou held that the congress gives a strong message of unity, cohesion and sincerity to fight for peace, sustainable development and the creation of harmonious societies. But Kevin Rudd openly worried that the congress pointed to Xi continuing as China’s paramount leader beyond the next five years. As a result, China will remain permanently governed through a Leninist party controlling a one-party state. However, due to that the West is self-satisfied and globally complacent, China is marching towards its sense of responsibility for transforming itself from a comprehensive manufacturing power to a technology-driven player, and eventually to become a highly innovative and creative power in the world. In so doing, it requires Xi’s leadership to have an iron grip on power, a strategy to deal with all sorts of challenges and China’s wisdom to reach global pre-eminence.
[*] Sun Fangfang, MA at QufuNormal University