South Asia region has been raveling terrorism from decades. Despite having potential economic growth, in bulk of natural resources along with maritime possession and vital manpower – terrorism has become one of the major impediments to augment development and regional stability in South Asia.
It is terrorism which may pale foreign investment in South Asian states and causes long term instability. For that reason, terrorism has made South Asian countries impelled to reconsideration of state and foreign policy. Even though terrorism has not embedded in entire part of South Asia like Middle East and Africa yet, some crucial segments of the region has been pervaded severely by affliction of terrorism. Tracing gravity of consequences, this article investigates state policy and foreign policy of South Asian countries concerning terrorism.
Frequent political unrest, exploitation and skirmishes edify individual’s sentiment looking forward to fostering terror activities in South Asia. Some states of South Asian region allegedly bestowing political benevolence to leverage state policy has given space various terrorist groups. Spread of extreme ideologies consigned from Middle Eastern countries via media, bogus NGOs, a few religious institutions have prolonged terrorism in South Asia. Furthermore, extreme nationalism and communism in several incisions of South Asia has provoked separationist movements which have been metamorphosis into terrorism afterwards. Moreover, Geographical flashpoints have hatched harborage for terrorist factions. Several mountainous area, hill tracts, woodlands and riparian sites are prop roots of terrorist bases. Afghanistan, India and Pakistan are egregious victims of the claws of terrorism. Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives have also witnessed fatal affects. Damages of lives, wealth, economy even social and political structure are beyond controversies while the amount is being increasingly high in every minute. In the meantime, some countries have grasped policies to confront global terrorism and diminution of losses due to terrorist attacks.
India is accusing Pakistan for ”playing a proxy war against India” for years by using terrorist groups as a trump card. Late 2016 India has suffered several terrorist attacks including Uri, Pathankot and Baramulla attacks blaming Pakistan for giving shelter to terrorist groups and leaders. All the mentioned attacks left injuries and deaths of Indian military personnel. That’s why a tension had prevailed in the Line of Control (Loc) last year. India had also claimed for a successful ‘surgical strike’ in Pakistan territory. In that year Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi vowed to boycott Pakistan internationally. Eventually, 19th SAARC summit had also been postponed when Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan and later Sri Lanka joined India’s convoy for boycotting Pakistan showing different issues.
Afghanistan has been facing severe depression while seeing no symptoms to reduction of terrorist acts in the country. US backed Afghan force has already engaged in war Taliban like insurgent groups. Being exhausted with Pakistan’s stand towards terrorist groups Afghanistan is now seeking close relations with India while accusing Pakistan to support Taliban and resemble insurgent groups. According to Alyssa Ayres, Senior Fellow for India, Pakistan, and South Asia, ”India – the fifth largest bilateral donor to Afghanistan, and a power with deep expertise on governance, development, infrastructure, and commerce – could be a larger part of the international efforts to assist Afghanistan.” (Alyssa Ayres, How India can help in Afghanistan, cfr : 2017).
Unprecedented deadly attack on Dhaka Holey Artisan Bakery has shaken the whole nation. Although before this attack Bangladesh has shown terrorist attacks previously, the Holey Artisan attack resulted in death of 17 foreigners including 9 Italian, 7 Japanese and 1 Indian. From then Bangladesh has hold a strict position showing ‘zero tolerance’ to terrorism. After the devastating incident Bangladesh is carrying on routine operation regularly to destroy militant dens and networks so that her national security may protect and she can assure the international community that situation of Bangladesh is still veritable. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has made clear the government’s position towards terrorism issue declaring no place for terrorist activities in the soil of Bangladesh. Bangladesh and India have consented to share intelligence report in the sake of terroristic deeds. Such positive stand has renowned her image to international community.
The Maldives is often known as tourists haven “a collection of about 1,200 islands in the Indian Ocean, the Maldives has hosted 1.2 million visitors last year” (Kai Schultz, New York Times: 2017). Recently, the Maldives is under threat of spreading terrorism – have faced an attack on tourists. UK government has issued foreign travel advice for traveling in Maldives “Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in the Maldives. Attacks could be indiscriminate, including in places frequented by expatriates and foreign travellers including tourists” (source) For that reason, the Maldives government has initiated the country’s state policy to demolish terrorism. In the policy Maldives consciously recognized that “Maldives will take all necessary measures against terrorism and violent extremism in accordance with the United Nations Global Counter Terrorism Strategy, which was passed by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006, and the Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism, which was submitted by the UN Secretary General to the General Assembly in December 2015”. (State Policy – Terrorism and Violent Extremism, Page 3)
Pakistan is reportedly accused of giving cherishment to several terrorist groups – providing them aid, armaments and launch pads – basically for spreading terror in Kashmir region and India withal. However, Pakistan government shows displeasure for these allegations. Apparently, these charges against Pakistan come in light after a media interview of Pakistan’s Foreign Minister acknowledging presence of Jamat ud Dawah (Jud) and its armed wing Lashkar e Taiba (Let) in the land of Pakistan – while previously Pakistan has refused to concede any type of terror activities of above mentioned groups. Moreover, Pakistan is internally fetters with lethal eventualities of terrorism – having a vast amount of bloodshed and screaming every single day – with a dominance of tribal and global terrorist groups like Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and Al-Qaeda (AQ) in North-West Pakistan. Annunciation of President Donald Trump regarding cessation to donation and citing Pakistan as ‘terror safe havens’ has pressurized Pakistan while Pakistan is reportedly denying President Trump’s allegations and vows to help Kashmiris. Coincidentally BRICS declaration against allegedly Pakistan has propelled Pakistan to rethink about her policy towards terrorist groups. Pakistan Foreign Minister Khawaja Asif has said in an interview “Instead, we should impose some restrictions on the activities of elements like LeT and JeM, so that we can show the global community that we have put our house in order” (Dawn.com September 06, 2017). However, in the same occasion, President Donald Trump has asked for India’s help in the case of Afghanistan. It seems as a milestone for India’s diplomatic success towards terrorism issue.
South Asian states are concern about terrorism and terrorist activities that stampede not only development in this region but also relations between or among states. In spite of hindrances there are also anticipations to get rid of the turmoil. Confronting terrorism is not a single-way process it should be understood by South Asian countries. Multilateral configuration ought to be portrayed to face with terrorism. Massive change in political appropriation should be ensued. Mutual trust must be built up among South Asian nations. Appeasement to terrorism have to hurled. Harboring terrorism by any South Asian states should be considered as breaching of international law. Statement of Pakistan’s Foreign Minister regarding restrictions on Pakistan based terrorist groups unfolds feasibility to ameliorate current situation. Pakistan must switch her stance on terrorism through termination of political patronage to terrorist groups. There are a large number of insecure boundaries among the South Asian countries – most of them situated in forest areas, hilly or mountainous realm, riverine sites or in desert – which are being availed to basement, training, transition and launch pad for terrorist factions. Surveillance should be boost up in those outlying cantons. Terrorism financing ought to be ceased. So, States of South Asia region have to exchange intelligence informations involving terrorism with each other. A military alliance should be formed comprising South Asian states to combat terrorism in their strongholds.
Despite having ambiguous interpretations, the sequels of terrorism are palpable. Safety of lives and wealth, economic growth and development, stability in South Asian region can’t be fostered without elimination of terrorism from this region. Notwithstanding, contraction of terrorism is not enforceable except reciprocal adjuvant of South Asian states. It’s the compatible time to stand against terrorism, otherwise, terrorism may circumambulate in South Asia region by all means.