The ideology of the so-called Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) that conquered substantial parts of Syria and Iraq has been described as based on Salafi-jihadism. The group has rapidly become a security threat to Middle Eastern countries, as it has challenged the Middle Eastern order and attempted to redraw the map of the region; additionally, it has threatened Western countries, encouraging murders, suicide killings, and spreading fear among the populace.
These actions were encouraged by the group’s ideology, as its long-term goal was to build a global Caliphate to implement Islamic law (“Sharia rule”). Consequently, ISIL formed an aggressive foreign policy towards Middle Eastern countries and international community to establish a global Caliphate and implement Sharia rule in areas under its control. Although ISIL military strategy has been consistently defensive for the past year at least (ISIL has worked primarily on trying to hold territory or make it costly for Iraqi/Syrian forces to retake it), ideologically ISIL believed in offensive military strategy to achieve its own long term goal, which is the creation of a global caliphate. The question here is that why did the Islamic State believe in an offensive security strategy and aggressive foreign policy? How far has such a strategy been successful?
Why ISIL Adopted an Offensive Foreign Policy Strategy
Why has ISIL foreign policy towards other entities been entirely shaped by jihad? IbnTaymiyyah, a medieval Sunni Muslim theologian and the leader of Salafisminhis time, believed that war with disbelievers emerged because of the disbelievers ‘aggression; in other words, Taymiyyah taught that Muslims should follow a defensive strategy and that war wasonly permissible in self-defense. This approach, however, is not a common understanding of Salafi-jihadism. The mainstream understanding of Salafi-jihadism instead presents that concept that jihad against disbelievers emerged not only because of aggression, but also because of their “disbelief” itself. For example, Muhammad Salih al-Uthaymin, the most famous Sunni scholar of Saudi Arabia and a giant within Salafism, in his book The Collections of Messages and Fatwas of the Scholar Uthaymin, said that their kufr (disbelief) and shirk (polytheism) legitimize the spilling of their blood, not only their aggression and enmity. According to Muhammad Salih al-Uthaymin, every disbeliever must be killed because of shirk and kufr, even if they are not aggressive and invasive. Based on this fatwa (Authoritative legal opinion given by an Islamic legal scholar), ISIL formed its own foreign policy towards the world.
IS in its 15th issue of Dabiq Magazine wrote a section titled “why we hate you and why we fight you”, listing six reasons for Muslim animosity towards the West.
“We hate you, first and foremost, because you are disbelievers; you reject the oneness of Allah – whether you realize it or not – by making partners for Him in worship, you blaspheme against Him, claiming that He has a son, you fabricate lies against His prophets and messengers, and you indulge in all manner of devilish practices. It is for this reason that we were commanded to openly declare our hatred for you and our enmity towards you. We hate you because your secular, liberal societies permit the very things that Allah has prohibited while banning many of the things He has permitted, a matter that doesn’t concern you because you separate between religion and state, thereby granting supreme authority to your whims and desires via the legislators you vote into power. In the case of the atheist fringe, we hate you and wage war against you because you disbelieve in the existence of your Lord and Creator. We hate you for your crimes against Islam and wage war against you to punish you for your transgressions against our religion. We hate you for your crimes against the Muslims; your drones and fighter jets bomb, kill, and maim our people around the world, and your puppets in the usurped lands of the Muslims oppress, torture, and wage war against anyone who calls to the truth. We hate you for invading our lands and fight you to repel you and drive you out”.
As is clear, the actions of IS fully stem from its own radical ideology. This extreme ideology has no room for negotiation and peaceful dialogue with others, as any negotiation with the camp of disbelief is interpreted by IS followers as in defiance of the ideology of Salafism. Moreover, ISIL was not a nationalist movement and has no political problem with others, if it was resolved, then it would stop fighting, but it has a religious cause and attempts to restore the rule of Islam, the belief encourages IS to fight until the creation of the Caliphate and the implementation of Sharia rule.
An assessment for ISIL Foreign Policy
ISIL aggressive foreign policy has been largely unsuccessful and self-defeating for a number of reasons. First, although ISIL claims it is waging jihad to liberate humans from the darkness of kufr to the light of Islam, the means to liberate human kind have been too traditional, brutal, and bloody. ISIL uses hard power understanding of Islam to convert infidels to Islam, instead of using soft power means to attract the attention of nonbelievers to Islam through focusing on justice, equality, and honesty. ISIL believes that Islam is a religion of the sword rather than a religion of peace or pacifism. Following, the perception of ISIL for security not only lacks the human centrism understanding, but rather it is against the human security. This is because that perception victimizes the human security for the security of the religious texts (restoration the rule of Islam), while the latter was sent to serve human beings. In other words, ISIL attempted to restore the Islamic rule through shed the blood of human beings. Finally, the strategy that ISIL followed in its foreign policy towards the world is unsuccessful and self- defeating. IS’ aim was to change international politics and replace it with a global Caliphate. On one hand, this strategy required ISIL to have an offensive capability enough to invade the whole world, but in reality, ISIL did not have enough defensive capability to defend its small amount of captured territory. On the other hand, the strategy is irrational and self-defeating, as it aims to destroy the world order and the state system. ISIL has caused such severe international security concerns that it attracted military intervention. This means that the military advances and aggressions of ISIL triggered military intervention by international community.
Ethnic War a Newfangled Pakistani Forward-policy for Afghanistan
According to the intelligence information, Pakistan’s ISI is trying to start ethnic and maneuvering war again in Afghanistan, of which distinct objective is to refurbish the age-old enmity between the Achakzai and Noorzai tribes in the southwest zone. Besides, they want to start an ethnic war among Pashtuns and non-Pashtuns across Afghanistan, and between the northern and southern directions, thus, the prominent leaders of the Taliban, who are led by the ISI, have been entrusted with the task. As in the east and north of Afghanistan, Pashtun Taliban militants are oppressing other Non-Pashtuns, raiding their homes; however, no high-ranking Pashtun Taliban officials are preventing them because the ISI network leads this strategy. In order to revamp a civil war in Afghanistan, score of influential figures have been summoned by the Pakistani military establishment.
The latest examples are as follows: Two days ago, the Pashtun Taliban killed the former police chief and an influential tribal leader in Mandol district of Nuristan province, which caused many emotions against Pashtuns especially about southwest zone of Afghanistan. Meanwhile, in order to afresh the years of hostility between the Noorzai and Achakzi tribes in the southwestern region of Afghanistan, the ISI network raised the issue of a mass grave by several leading Taliban militants, especially by the current governor of Kandahar province and Noorzai tribe leading leader, Haji Mohammad Yousef Wafa.
At a time when the former leader of the Noorzai tribe, the leading smuggler of drugs and heavy weapons in Central and South Asia, and the financial supporter of the first Taliban regime, Haji Bashar Noorzai was released from the US prison in Guantánamo. The Noorzai tribe once again became twice as strong and dominant in Afghanistan, especially in the southwest zone. Resulting threats towards the Achakzai people, on the other hand, ISI has started rapid efforts to recommence the years of enmity between these two tribes.
Recently, Pakistan’s intelligence network ISI, with the help of some leading social media and high-ranking Taliban officials, has kept the issue of finding a mass grave in Kandahar province in the southwestern zone of Afghanistan broiling, namely by inducing the blame-game. Meanwhile, local tribal leaders and residents of Spin Boldak district claim that such a grave is the grave of those who were taken out of their homes by the Taliban after August 15. Since, they were connected to Achakzai tribe and on the other hand, they served in the security departments of the overthrown Islamic Republic of Afghanistan that is why the Taliban night raided their houses, and massively killed them.
Moreover, mass murdering Hazaras at their educational institutions via suicide bombing and meantime blowing up the worship places of Sufi-Muslims, who preach the non-violent form of Islam, while calling for De-weaponization and De-politicization of Islam.
Consequently, by applying such a forward-policy, Pakistan will achieve its fancied strategic-depth in Afghanistan, while subjugating the Afghan Nation.
Pakistani Intelligence Agencies ignite Tribal Conflicts in Pak-Afghan Region
According to the intelligence information, Pakistani intelligence community supported by some international rings want to once again spread dispute and disharmony among the tribes in Afghanistan and Pakistan; subsequently the centuries-old evils and wars between the tribes will once more take a new color and become fresh. Recently, rumors of the discovery of a mass grave in Kandahar province in the southwestern zone of Afghanistan are spreading; the blame for this mass murder falls on the former police chief of Kandahar province and the former leader of the Achagzai tribe, General Abdul Razaq Achagzai. In order to afresh raising the reaction of the Norzi tribe against the Ackzai and anew the evil and war between these two tribes. Even though the current governing body of Afghanistan is completely under the control of the Noorzi tribe, because most of the high-ranking leaders of the Taliban, including the leader of the Taliban, Sheikh Haibatullah, are related to the Noorzi tribe, so there is a greater threat posed to the Achakzi tribe.
Even now, in spite of such menaces, more than 6000 Achakzi families live in Kandahar province, whose members served in the security departments under the command of General Abdul Razaq Achakzi, a staunch opponent of the Taliban. Currently, in such a tense situation that the Taliban administration has control over Afghanistan and the head of this administration is connected to the Nurzi tribe, the harsh criticism of General Abdul Razaq Achakzai’s mass killings is logical, which can cause international and internal outcries. As a result, the major victims will be the youths and leading tribal leaders of the Achakzai tribe.
By the advent of Taliban on August 15, 2021, in the first four months, more than 600 youths and tribal leaders from the Achakzi tribe were killed in the southwest zone of Afghanistan, while applying night operations or raids by the Taliban. The most famous case happened to the family of Haji Fida Mohammad Achakzai in Spin Boldak district. Haji Fida Muhammad Achakzai, known as Haji Fida Aka, is a leading leader of the Achakza tribe of Spin Boldak district and had close relations with the family of General Abdul Razaq Achakzai.
When Kandahar province fell to the Taliban before August 15, the two young sons of him were killed by the Taliban on the first night, unfortunately none of the Taliban officials took any action to prevent the tragedy. Nevertheless, this time, there is a plan going on at the international level to renew the age-old differences between the Achakzai and Norzai tribes, which the international media warmly supports. If this time the internal differences and conflicts between the Achakzai and Norzai tribes in Afghanistan get sturdier, then it will have damaging effects not only in Afghanistan, but also, serious negative measures will be taken against the Norzai under the leadership of Mahmoud Khan Achakzai, the head of the Achakzai tribe, in the Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan.
In the meantime, the decision of the Pakistani government to hand over the Pashtun areas in Pakhtunkhwa provinces to the Taliban was approved and supported by the Nurzi tribe, conversely, this action of the Pakistani government was strongly condemned by Mahmoud Khan Achakzai and PTM leader Manzoor Pashtun.
Afghan Zarqawi is shot dead in Panjsher valley of Afghanistan
According to intelligence information, the leading Taliban commander Maulvi Habibullah Sheeran, who was known as Zarqawi, a resident of Zhrhai District, Kandahar Province, in the southwestern zone of the Taliban was killed in Panjsher battle.
Meantime, the intelligence report indicates, Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir, the general military officer of Panjshir and Andrab and the deputy of the Ministry of National Defense, was injured in Panjshir on Friday, September 16 at 3:25 p.m.
Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir, who is considered one of the leading and influential war commanders in the southwest zone of the Taliban, has the support of about 4,000 low-ranking and high-ranking Taliban fighters. He is one of the Taliban military commanders who, during the first mobilization of the Taliban, formed the Taliban group with the support of Mullah Muhammad Omar Mujahid, the founder of the Taliban, and attracted hundreds of young men from Helmand province to the Taliban group.
When the Taliban came to power for the second time in Afghanistan, due to internal differences among the Taliban, Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir left the Taliban for a short time and went to his native Kajki district of Helmand province. However, due to the many efforts of the Taliban, especially Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir’s assistant and the current head of security of presidential palace Mullah Mutaullah Mubarak, He joined the Taliban again and was appointed as the Deputy Minister of Defense.
Taliban leaders made more efforts to reunite Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir with the Taliban, because he was an influential military leader, and on the other hand, Taliban leaders were receiving reports that Mullah Qayyum Zakir wants to join ISIS against Taliban. Nevertheless, when he joined with the Taliban leaders for the second time, he was assigned the position of Deputy Minister of Defense, So, for a period, he cooperated with the Minister of Defense Maulvi Yaqoub as a military advisor in the Ministry of Defense.
When the rumors of the fall of the northern part of Afghanistan were spread and the fighting between the NRF or the National Resistance Front and the Taliban in Panjshir and Andrab intensified, Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir, based on the special permission of Sheikh Haibatullah, Appointed General Military Officer of Northern Afghanistan. In addition, from September 9, under his leadership, a special military operation named Al-Fath began in Panjshir and Andarabs to clear and liberate northern Afghanistan from the fighters of the National Resistance Front.
As a result of the operation, from September 9th to September 16th, dozens of NRF fighters were also killed but the casualties of Taliban fighters are methodically shown below, although scores of Taliban fighters were destroyed.
- The bodies of 60 to 70 Taliban fighters who were killed in the battle of Panjshir have been transferred to Uruzgan province.
- The dead bodies of 50 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Kandahar Province.
- The dead bodies of 33 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Helmand Province.
- The dead bodies of 22 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Ghor Province.
- The dead bodies of 11 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Takhar province.
- The dead bodies of 6 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Kunduz Chahar Dara.
- The dead bodies of 12 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Zabul province.
- The dead bodies of nine Taliban fighters have been transferred to Wardag Province.
- The dead bodies of 10 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Dandi Ghori in Baghlan province.
Last Friday, September 16, in the bloody battle, Mullah Qayyum Zakir, the military officer in charge of Panjshir and Andrab, was seriously injured and eight of his bodyguards, who were residents of Helmand and Uruzgan provinces, were killed. Mullah Qayyum Zakir was transferred to the 400-bed hospital in Kabul at 10 o’clock in the evening on September 16, and former Taliban doctor Atiqullah was invited to Kabul from Al-Khair Hospital of Balochistan province of Pakistan for treatment.
There is a bloody war going on in the north of Afghanistan and around 300 al-Fatih forces are going to Panjshir from Kabul tonight and may reach tomorrow. Meanwhile, in Vienna, the plan for the formation of a new military and political movement was announced in a three-day meeting of the anti-Taliban political officials of the former government of Afghanistan. Moreover, based on that military plan, after dividing Afghanistan into five major parts, the political and military leaders of each zone will start preparing their organizations against the Taliban, and they will use such political and military tactics as the Taliban used against the government of the Republic of Afghanistan during the last 20 years of resistance.
China’s economic slowdown and its implications for the rest of Asia
China’s economy has slowed down considerably since the past year. The key reasons for China’s slow growth are its stringent...
Revolutionary Russia and the Formation of Political Consciousness in Modern Kerala
20th century marks an important epoch in the history of mankind. The century saw multiple revolutions, two devastating world wars,...
Factors Influencing the World Order’s Structure
“Study the historian before you begin to study the facts” – Edward H. Carr International relations are unfolding against the...
35 years of Cultural Routes: Safeguarding European Values, Heritage, and Dialogue
A Europe rich in history, heritage, dialogue and values: the Council of Europe Cultural Routes’ programme celebrates its 35th anniversary,...
The New World Order
Faith can move mountains or quite literally push you over the edge. Everyone’s brain function and cognition is tested at...
Little progress combating systemic racism against people of African descent
More than two years since the murder of George Floyd by a police officer in the United States sparked the...
Saudi crown prince shifts into high gear on multiple fronts
Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman is simultaneously speed dating and playing on multiple diplomatic, religious, and economic chessboards. The...
Science & Technology4 days ago
The Development of Artificial Intelligence in China: Talent creation and comparison with U.S.
Middle East4 days ago
The end of political Islam in Iran
International Law3 days ago
Do we still live in a multipolar world?
Americas3 days ago
The latest Kissinger: Leadership and the eavesdropping on history
Eastern Europe3 days ago
Latvia is inundated with NATO
Russia3 days ago
Russia’s Great Game: Donetsk, Lugansk, Zaporozhye and Kherson are now Part of the Russian Federation
South Asia3 days ago
The South Asian Triangle
Intelligence3 days ago
Ethnic War a Newfangled Pakistani Forward-policy for Afghanistan