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Xiamen BRICS Summit: Triumph for Indian Diplomacy

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The 9th BRICS summit was concluded on September 4, 2017 in Xiamen, China. The BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) group was formed in 2006 to deepen cooperation in economic sphere and laud efforts to transform international governance system.

In December 2010, China chaired BRIC summit and invited South Africa to join group of emerging economies, which gave birth to BRICS acronym. So far, 9 summits has been concluded and recent was held in Xiamen, China.

Xiamen summit is extremely important for Pakistan and its relations with its all-weather friend China. It is widely acknowledged that two nations have maintained close friendship and cordiality since past six decades, and China always come forward to support Pakistan in crucial times. Collaboration in military-nuclear arenas and concerted efforts to combat terrorism are well documented and recognized. However recent summit declaration caused mutilation to close strategic partnership between two friends. India has won its long awaited war with concerted efforts and energies to include Pakistan based terrorist organizations. 

The BRICS members “expressed concern on the security situation in the region and violence caused by the Taliban, ISIL/DAISH, Al-Qaeda and its affiliates including Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, the Haqqani network, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad, TTP and Hizb ut-Tahrir”. The statement said, we “condemn all forms of terrorism and manifestations wherever committed and by whomsoever and stress that there can be no justification whatsoever for any act of terrorism. We affirm that those responsible for committing, organizing, or supporting terrorist acts must be held accountable”.[1]  Moreover group members reaffirm solidarity and resolve to combat terrorism and call upon all nations to adopt comprehensive approach to fight against terrorism.

The inclusion of Pakistan-based terror groups in summit document indicated a shift in the Chinese view towards terror groups operating out of Pakistan. During the last BRICS summit in Goa, China rebuffed Indian efforts to include Pakistan based terror groups in declaration, despite India provided evidences to China about involvement of Pakistan led terrorist groups in various terrorist attacks ensued in India. [2] Here a thoughtful question has appeared that, Why China agreed to include Pakistan-based terrorist groups in summit declaration?

There are three possible factors influence in China’s shift towards India and Pakistan-based terror outfits.

First, Doklam standoff has played significant role in China’s shift to deal its South Asian competitor. After more than two and half months tense standoff between Indian Army and the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) on Himalayan territory, Doklam standoff has come to an end.  On August 28, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), India and Foreign Ministry of China issued statements that both countries had reached a disengagement agreement.[3] The standoff escalated in June this year, when PLA started to extend road infrastructure in Dolam, which is part of Doklam region, a disputed territory between Bhutan and China. Indian troops interdicted the PLA to extend a road southward towards Jampheri Ridge, which is strategically important for the Indian army. India claimed that Chinese road construction will seriously hamper Indian security settings in the area, and opposed to unilateral changes in the status quo in the region by China. Since then, two armies were standing face to face and threat of war between two nuclear states was looming on surface.

 The Doklam standoff was a test case for both India and China to show off power and resistance, as well as peaceful channels to diffuse tensions. From the very first day, China stressed India to withdraw its troops unilaterally before settling dispute diplomatically, however India displayed no sign to withdraw its forces until successful agreement of disengagement. Even though escalation on border, both countries continued diplomatic channels to resolve the issue and finally reached an agreement to disengage troops. But these two months long standoff provided an opportunity to India to check its resistance power against its large rival in Asia. India successfully tested its military muscle against China and recognized that it has capacity to resist against Chinese aggression. Whereas, China has admitted that right time has not come to involve in conflict with India and 21st century India is not alike 1962 India. Contemporary India is nuclear power with large conventional army and have close strategic partnership with the U.S and Japan which are strategic rivals of China in Asia Pacific. The fear of mutual destruction in case of nuclear war deter China to further escalate the conflict. Thus, China admitted that peaceful relations with its larger and antagonistic neighbor are necessity of time.

Secondly, India has successfully projected its diplomatic power around the world and employed various diplomatic tactics including; aggressive diplomacy towards its weak neighboring countries, and shuttle diplomacy towards other developed countries to garner support for India. It diplomatic crew bridged close working relationship with newly elected President Doland Trump administration in the U.S. Therefore existing close Indo-U.S relationship transformed into new strategic partnership with announcement of President Trump to grant greater role to India in Afghanistan. His speech indicated, that India has invested heavily in the U.S. to gain support for its future endeavors, and its fruits reflected by tougher approach towards Pakistan adopted by the U.S. president. Moreover, since assuming Premiership, Premier Narendra Modi paid several state visits to European countries and concluded billions of dollar agreements in economic and military arenas which amplified profile of the country.

A brighter example of Indian diplomatic triumph can be found in the UNSC by presenting joint resolution by India and the U.S. to designate Pakistan based Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jammad-ud-Dawa as international terrorist outfits. Meanwhile, another joint proposal was put forward by the U.S, UK and France on January 19, 2017 to declare Molana Masood Azhar as terrorist. Previously by using veto power, China blocked all Indian bids and employed a technical hold on UNSC resolutions. However, Xiamen Summit declaration exposed flaws in Chinese diplomacy against Indian systematic and concerted diplomacy. New Delhi successfully converge Beijing to withdraw its support for Pakistan and included names of Pakistan-based terrorist organizations in the summit document. Its partners in the grouping also supported and persuaded China to change its foreign policy towards India for smooth and brighter future of the group.

It can be claimed that 9th BRICS summit paved the way for concerted efforts to combat terrorism in all its forms. Similarly it is an indication that China may not oppose Indian resolutions in the UNSC to label Pakistan based organizations as terrorist outfits. Another scenario is emerging about Beijing’s accession for India’s permanent position in the UNSC and Inclusion into NSG.

Thirdly, insertion of Pakistan-based organizations in terrorist organizations list is another major obstruction to already crumbling foreign policy of the country. Since 2013 elections, newly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif withhold position of foreign minister, and only appointed advisor on foreign affairs. practically has no say in foreign affairs and all major decisions were taken by the Prime Minister His decision and tenure in the Prime Minister office seriously cause damage to foreign relations of the country and add new challenges in already vacillated foreign policy and diplomacy. Though, Pakistan was aware about BRICS summit and Indian intentions, but Islamabad did not take notice seriously and concentrated its energies on recently announced U.S. strategy for Afghanistan and South Asia. It seems that Islamabad overlooked emerging geopolitical situation after Doklam standoff and did not realize to contain Indian efforts against Pakistan. Equally important is that Pakistan failed to converge Beijing for its concerns about Indian intentions in BRICS summit. Contrary, it is a significant achievement by India to persuade Beijing for cross border terrorism. A China-based scholar argued that after Beijing’s backing for Indian concerns about terrorism by Islamabad-based terror outfits, pressure will be augmented on Pakistan. At last, Xiamen summit declaration is total failure of Islamabad’s foreign policy and diplomacy and triumph for Indian foreign policy.

[1] BRICS 9th Summit Document

[2] PTI, BEICS: In a first, China denounces terror groups based in Pakistan, Telangana Today, September 4, 2017, https://telanganatoday.com/china-terror-groups-pakistan

[3] Ankit Panda, Disengagement at Doklam: Why and How Did the India-China standoff End, The Diplomat, August 29,2017

[4] PTI, BRICS Summit 2017: Xiamen Declaration may strain China-Pakistan ties, says Scholar Hu Shisheng, First Post, September 4, 2017, http://www.firstpost.com/world/brics-summit-2017-xiamen-declaration-may-strain-china-pakistan-ties-says-scholar-hu-shisheng-4008337.html 

South Asia

Changing Regional Security Paradigm: A Challenge to Kashmir and Options for Pakistan

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The post-cold war world has witnessed shifts in international and regional security paradigms. Due to globalization, easy migrations, advanced technologies, changing geopolitical scenarios, and social resources the world today is more vulnerable to diversified threats.  In this regard, traditional conflict resolution tactics are not enough or influential. New strategies and options are needed to gain interest without being in direct war and confrontations. One such old conflict which has been there for more than 70 years despite 3 major wars between India and Pakistan is Kashmir Issue. While Pakistan is struggling economically and politically, India on the other side is increasing its soft power projection within the region and beyond, posing a serious threat to the traditional tactics of Pakistan towards the Kashmir cause.

The 4 major factors that boosted the strategies of the Indian state are identity, security, prosperity, and soft power. Along with defense, India was focused on its economy, diplomacy, and identity so much from the past few years. It is one of the key drivers of the global economic market, making up about 15% of the world’s economic output. Soon India will become the world’s largest country by Population, accounting for maximum youth, meaning it is offering incentives, consumer markets, and youth force to other countries. Moreover, India has become the third largest producer of steel (producer with Arcelor- Mittal), enhancing the credibility and reliability of MADE IN INDIA across the globe. It is considered an IT giant. Many IT companies from India entered Fortune 500-group that has opened doors of businesses and jobs for the Indian youth.

Furthermore, along with being a major partner in trade and commerce in the international market, regionally India provides aid and acts as an advocate of welfare for many developing countries in Asia. Along with that, it is also looking towards opportunities to gain the interest of Afghanistan which is an internationally isolated state.   Internationally, it has become a major geo-strategic and geo-economic partner of many western states like the US and UK, as it has the potential to counter the Chinese Rise. It is part of various geopolitical alliances initiated for the containment of China such as QUAD and middle eastern alliances i.e., I2U2.  Moreover, India also has a settled Middle Eastern policy to benefit from all major actors instead of choosing blocs. Thus, India has worked on its economy, over the years to bring prosperity and self-sufficiency within the country. It has provided markets and incentives to other countries thereby increasing its lobbying power. Through its strong diplomacy, it has become a major actor that also promoted its values and identity.

Lastly one can’t deny that the hegemonic capabilities of India have challenged the Kashmiris and their freedom movements. India is now integrating into Kashmir not only militarily but also diplomatically, politically, and economically. It has incentivized the Kashmir issue as well.  After India revoked articles 370 and 35A It is working on Kashmir’s demographic changes. India also opened doors for tourism and international investments in Kashmir. If someone starts investing there, that will normalize that Kashmir is part of India. Yet India didn’t receive any backlash, nor it is isolated or being sanctioned. The reason is simple, India has good ties with many western states. It provides incentives and fulfills the economic and political interests of the west.

For Pakistan, which is a party to the conflict, instead of normative a more realistic approach is required now. Though Pakistan has emotional attachments with Kashmir but it’s not enough to just talk about morals and injustice at international forums.  If Pakistan wants to support the Kashmiris it should enhance its intellectual power, academia, and soft power projection. Literature and academia help export the actual ideologies and narratives to the rest of the world. The Kashmiri diaspora within Pakistan and abroad should be supported for that. In addition, Pakistan needs to increase its influence to counter India not only in the military sector but also in the economic and political domains.  The defense ratio between Pakistan and India is 1/8 while on the other hand in the economy it is 1/20. Though the importance of defense can’t be ignored in the balance of power, but international politics has evolved, and power is not limited to military only. One can look at the two recent world events where there was the use of force and weapons to gain interests i.e., Afghanistan and the Ukraine-Russian war. Afghanistan is now internationally isolated while Russia is being sanctioned and criticized. So, direct confrontations and wars are not accepted and supported by states at broad levels. Thus, with the changing global political and strategic environment it is important to work on spheres of academia, research, soft power, and diplomacy.

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The Taliban and the current Afghanistan

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Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons

After the Taliban seized power in Afghanistan, the Afghan state and the public rapidly declined. The country’s territories have become the source of international terrorism and many global problems.

August 15 is the first anniversary since the power in Afghanistan was seized by the Kabul Taliban, and the ex-president of the Afghan state, Ashraf Ghani fled. After a year of the Taliban’s power, their power has not yet been recognized by any state in the world.

According to the UN International Labor Organization, the Taliban’s ascension to power in Afghanistan has led to rapid growth in the unemployment rate among the population. Based on the data of the UN, such a situation in the Afghan labor market was caused by the economic crisis and the prohibition on work for the female population. Over five hundred thousand people in Afghanistan lost their jobs during the first month of the Taliban rule. “The crisis has affected women the most. Thus, their employment level, already extremely low by world standards, decreased by 16% in the third quarter of last year. By mid—2022, it is projected to fall to 28%,” the UN investigation states.

In addition to the economic decline, there has been a rise in drug production in Afghanistan. Drugs are one of the Taliban’s main income zones, and their power has re-activated the production and export of opium and heroin. However, the drug business was also active under the former Afghan authorities. According to the UN, in 2021, Afghanistan’s income from drug exports amounted from 1.8 billion to 2.7 billion US dollars. This profit is from 6 to 11% of the GDP of the Afghan state. As before, the main drug export channels pass through Pakistan. The leader of the Taliban, Haibatullah Akhundzada, issued a fatwa in 2022 to ban the production and distribution of opium and other drug substances in Afghanistan. However, there have been no significant changes in this situation. Nevertheless, the Taliban repeatedly make statements about the cessation of drug production, but they also confirm that the prohibition on opium production will lead to the loss of the only way of earning for peasants, leading to an uprising.

Pakistan acts as the main partner country for Afghanistan. Bypassing sanctions, weapons are coming from Pakistan to Afghanistan. And the majority of Afghan drugs are exported through Pakistan’s western provinces – the southern route. The main patron and sponsor of the Taliban is also the Pakistani military leadership. With the help of Pakistani support, the radicals seized power in Afghanistan and persecuted other alternatives to power.

The Taliban’s first financial income was provided by transportation fees that the militants took from truck drivers on the border of Afghanistan and the state’s territory. The Taliban’s seizure of power in Afghanistan concentrated its forces on extracting natural resources. In February 2022, the Afghan media reported on the negotiations of the new Afghan government with China on the development of copper and lithium by Chinese companies. But even though China, along with Pakistan, is a vital partner of the Taliban regime, mineral development has not yet begun. Without the support and diplomatic assistance of China and Pakistan, the Taliban would not have been able to establish their authority over Afghanistan. However, Beijing still has not officially recognized their power.

Also, summing up the results of the year of Taliban rule in Afghanistan, we can definitely say that the new regime fails to solve the economic and social problems of the state. According to UN research, Afghanistan is on the verge of famine and humanitarian collapse. It is worth noting that during the presence of the United States and NATO in the country, there was no such catastrophic situation. Also, during the period of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, the position of terrorist organizations such as al Qaeda and the Islamic State has strengthened. The Taliban does not intend to start the fight with the presence of these organizations.

Also, in June 2022, an earthquake with colossal consequences occurred on the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan. The death toll during the disaster was more than 1.5 people, and more than two thousand were injured. The UN has recorded that Afghanistan’s government cannot cope with the threats that the Afghan society is forced to cope with alone.

UNICEF and the World Food Program note the catastrophic situation of Afghan children, and organizations make statements about the high level of undernutrition and that over 3.5 million children urgently need treatment. The UN website says, “Hospital wards are full of malnourished children: many one-year-olds weigh as much as a six-month-old baby would weigh in a developed country, and some are so weak that they cannot move.”

The new government of Afghanistan carries out mass executions, severe human rights violations, and forced disappearances of citizens and previous security forces employees. This is recorded by the United Nations Assistance Organization in Afghanistan. To a large extent, the repression is carried out by two Talib departments – the Ministry of Propaganda of Virtue and Prevention of Vice and the General Directorate of Intelligence. Both organizations are under the auspices of Pakistani security agencies.

UNAMA experts report “arbitrary arrests and detentions of journalists, human rights defenders and protesters.” There were 160 extrajudicial executions, 178 unjustified arrests and 56 cases of torture of former Afghan military and Government employees. In addition, 2106 victims were registered among ethnic and religious minorities (700 killed, 1406 wounded).

After a year, the Taliban authorities, according to international organizations, destroyed the essential state structures in Afghanistan responsible for solving social issues such as jobs and the state’s humanitarian condition. The Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission premises were also seized, and the Ministry of Women’s Affairs was closed. Afghan women are deprived of the right to work. Except for some professions, they are not allowed to travel more than 72 km unaccompanied by men and cannot appear on the street with an open face. Responsibility for all violations of the rules of a woman is borne by her father or another close male relative. The punishment is dismissal from work or imprisonment.

Freedom of speech was also seriously impaired. The international human rights organization Reporters Without Borders (RSF) reports that there are half as many media in Afghanistan as a result of the year-long run of the Taliban. During the year, 219 organizations out of 547 media were closed. Before the Taliban came to power, there were 11,857 journalists in the country. Today only 4,759 of them remain. Female journalists took the first impact. Almost all of them were left without their job.

The Taliban sees the UN’s message about human rights in Afghanistan as propaganda. On July 21, Taliban official Zabiullah Mujahid posted on social media: “There are no arbitrary killings or arrests in the country. If someone kills or arbitrarily arrests, that person is considered a criminal and will be brought before Sharia law.”

In sum, a few conclusions about the power of the Taliban must be noted. The Taliban is characterized by a lack of qualification in the country’s rule, and the leadership cannot organize public service. Also, the Taliban does not fulfil its duties to combat terrorist organizations, which has ensured the strengthening of the position of existing banned groups. The female population of Afghanistan and various social minorities suffered. The Taliban are building strong relationships with authoritarian countries such as Pakistan, China and Russia. Islamabad carries out the actual control of the Taliban and also uses the Taliban in the South Asian region for its geopolitical purposes.

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South Asia

Khalistan Referendum

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Every charter of Human Rights provides a framework for the basic individual rights. Under these civil liberties, all humans are entitled to revel in those privileges. Sikh community residing around the globe is facing heinous behavior from the India’s Modi regime as it is a home for many Sikhs. The episode of unlawful arrest of the UK-based Sikh activist named Jagtar Singh Johal in 2017 with the help of UK government ignited a huge number of protests across the world. According to his lawyers from Scotland, he has been tortured and falsely accused to whom British PM Boris John acknowledged while showing his concern. Most recently, the murder of Sidhu Moosewala who was an active supporter of Sikh rights is an example of India’s unjust activities. Provision of security was denied by BJP government before his murder. In support of Sidhu and separate homeland for Sikhs, more than 17,000 Sikhs voted for Khalistan Referendum in Rome, Italy. Similarly, UK having one of the highest ratio of Sikh diaspora, organized a campaign under the active advocates of Sikh rights “Sikhs for Justice (SFJ)” in which 30,000 British Sikhs voted for referendum on 31st October 2021. Series of Sikh referendums are lined up and SFJ declared that after completing this voting series, it will be a decision of 120,000 Sikhs showing the desire for separate land under the rule and law provided them by International Justice System.  A huge referendum is planned for the Sikhs of Punjab on 26th January 2023.

The roots of these referendum are enrooted into the event of Operation Blue Star happened in 1984. Under this operation, Indian army attached on the holiest place of Sikhs, “Golden Temple” to capture Sikhs whom Indian Army declared as terrorists and claimed that they are hiding weapons inside the temple as well. Many innocent Sikhs lost their lives. The level of brutality not only stopped at killing innocents but also disrespected the sentiments of the followers of this particular religion. A homeland that ought to be safe place for its residents became a threatening region. That’s why a huge number of Indian Sikhs migrated to other states like UK, Canada, Italy and US to seek a safe residence. The fight for the cause of Sikh’s rights is still going on, as there is a referendum on 18th September 2022, Toronto, Canada, in which high ratio of Sikh voters are expected to participate.

Massive genocide and extra-Judicial killings are the major tools of Modi regime against the Sikh community. To deal with all these unlawful activities, Sikh diaspora has organized itself into groups like “Sikhs for Justice (SFJ)” who are arranging referendum, holding protests and advocating Sikhs right at all possible platforms. Specifically for the Khalistan Referendum, Punjab Referendum Commission (PRC) has been designed to have free and fair voting for the basic demand. Through such representation, Sikhs are asking for a legal demand from India’s Modi regime. These organizational setup shows that Sikh community is well aware of its rights, and using the peaceful means to convey their message to the world. 

If India is real democracy and wants to be seen as democratic country, it should accept Sikh referendum results.  The result of referendum can always be leveraged in “Law fare domain” to ask India to hold an official referendum for the purpose.  Democracies are torch holder of freedom, human rights and their liberties. This behavior of India is not acceptable to be an example for the rest of aspiring democratic states where the Modi Regime is having genocidal designs against the specific communities. Khalistan Movement with the aspirations of a separate homeland is the legitimate demand of Sikh community. By overturning these movements and referendums, India is suppressing its minorities and violating their right to self-determination through peaceful means.

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