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Refugee Crisis Raises Humanitarian and Security Concerns

Aditi Aryal

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Europe has experienced an increasing influx of people since 2014, most of them migrants and refugees from conflict-affected areas like Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Horn of Africa. However, this has also seen an entry to Europe for a lot of people who do not qualify for political asylum with people who in fact do.

In line with the increase in mass movement of people, there has also been an increase of hostility and a cry of overpopulation in some of the countries in Europe. Moreover, there have also been increases in hate crimes with terrorist attacks, which has again been linked to incoming migrants. This mass migration has also opened avenues for smuggling humans into Europe via illegal channels. Thousands of people have already died en route, mainly by drowning in the Mediterranean. In September 2015, the body of a three-year old Syrian boy washed up dead on a beach in Turkey which garnered attention from around the world to an important issue: the refugee crisis.

Initially, a lot of people welcomed the refugees in many of the major EU cities such as Madrid, Milan, Athens, and Berlin. To demonstrate, they hung banners and messages welcoming refugees at various landmarks. However, with time, this changed into hate and fear and gave rise to other expressions of racism and xenophobia. Some people never wanted refugees in the first place because they were not open to the idea of sharing their land and resources with them. Racism spread after major attacks in Paris, Brussels, Berlin, Nice, Istanbul, and recently in Barcelona, which were all claimed by the Islamic State (IS). It is believed that the perpetrators of these attacks were people who initially entered as refugees. Meanwhile, the attacks on IS bases in Syria and Iraq were intensified by coalition forces (USA, Russia, France, Italy and others). These strikes were successful in the sense that they reduced the power of IS considerably and most of the IS-controlled areas in Iraq and Syria have been recaptured, including vital cities such as Mosul and Raqqa. The adverse impact of this, however, is that more instability has been caused due to the air strikes and ground troop infiltration that lead to internal displacements, as well as more people fleeing to Europe. It has also increased the trafficking of women to be sold to prostitution cartels in Jordan, Lebanon, and the Persian Gulf. Some women, even those who are underage, have to take up ‘survival sex’ as it is their only way of making it out alive.

The route from Libya to Italy was not in use after the supposed ‘deal’ between Gaddafi and Berlusconi in 2008. Any refugee ships suspected to be docking in Europe would be stopped or even shot at without any investigation. This route only resumed popularity after the assassination of Gaddafi in 2011. In 2015, a shooting incident killed about 700 immigrants when a ship was shot, suspected to have been conducted by the Italian mafia. They apparently control the routes of illicit migration and indulge in their own profitable smuggling of people.

Other measures had also been taken, like the Turkey-EU deal in March 2016. The refugees would be inspected upon arrival and would be sent back to Turkey in case of any suspicion. In case of these refugees being sent back, the EU would provide a home to them along with increasing grants up to €6 billion. According to the law in the EU, a country can be safe only if it can guarantee no individual can be prosecuted on account of nationality, religion, race, political opinion, or being a member of a particular social group. This brings into question if Turkey can be considered a safe country, where 17,740 people were arrested for voicing opinions against the government. This puts into doubt the entire practice of sending back refugees to Turkey.

The EU developed its first asylum policy in 1999 but the rules in place are today not sufficient to control mass migration. This reflects on how the EU was never prepared for a large-scale migration like Syria. After dealing with the huge inflow of asylum seekers, the European Union has reformed its immigration policies and refugee laws. While the basic fundamental foundation remains the same, the immigration policies have become stricter to combat abuse. The new laws have altered the reception of asylum seekers and it is now uniform and harmonized throughout the EU. Earlier, migration to countries like Greece and Italy was significantly easier than migrating to, say, Germany or Switzerland. Now, the EU has set up offices at every border which looks into the entry of asylum seekers with each EU country, following the same sets of rules.

A large number of people have entered Europe in the last two years with a desperate need of an asylum. These vulnerable people require international protection and the EU is in the moral and legal position to do provide it. The member nations need to examine applications and decide who needs protection. However, not all individuals that dock in Europe may require real protection since some of them enter Europe merely as ‘economic migrants’ with the agenda of improving their lives as resources and opportunities available in Europe are far greater than in their country of origin. This may lead to a draining of EU resources on the one hand and adversely impact the job opportunities for the native Europeans on the other, especially in countries such as Portugal, Italy, Greece, and Spain. In the Schengen area, since people are allowed to roam freely within the borders, this has put domestic security at further risk. For example, the perpetrators that were involved in the Paris and Brussels attacks had entered the continent as illegal immigrants through Turkey and Greece. This poses a huge threat not only to regional national security ensured by the European Union but also to the peace of mind of all local peoples.

Therefore, it can be said that there is an abundance of obstacles in the path to neutralize this crisis by the European Union and other concerned parties. However, these obstacles can be overcome by taking the correct steps gradually. Channeling funding by the EU and Germany for the support of the refugees in Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, and Greece is definitely major action. However, this does not solve the real problem. There have been indications finding a solution for the refugee problem in a way which seems suitable for both refugees and state authorities. Although this may take some time to develop and implement, with the right amount of efforts and mutual understanding, this goal will be met in due course provided all major parties agree to find an amicable solution that places peace and human rights and welfare above all else.

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Europe

Time to Tackle the Stigma Behind Wartime Rape

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Images: UN Women Kosovo

The youngest capital city in Europe, Pristina, is the ultimate hybrid of old and new: Ottoman-era architecture stands amongst communist paraphernalia, while Kosovars who lived through the bloodshed of the 20th century share family dinners with a generation of young people with their sights set on EU accession.

This month, the capital’s Kosovo Museum welcomed a new force for change; Colours of Our Soul, an exhibition of artwork from women who survived the sexual violence of the Yugoslav Wars, showcases the world as these women “wished it to be.”

Colours of Our Soul isn’t the first art installation to shine a light on the brutal sexual violence thousands of Kosovar victims suffered throughout the turmoil of the conflict which raged from 1988 to 1999. In 2015, Kosovo-born conceptual artist Alketa Xhafa-Mripa transformed a local football pitch into a giant installation, draping 5,000 dresses over washing lines to commemorate survivors of sexual violence whose voices otherwise tend to go unheard. “I started questioning the silence, how we could not hear their voices during and after the war and thought about how to portray the women in contemporary art,” said Xhafa-Mripa at the time.

Victims, and their children, pressed into silence

The silence Xhafa-Mripa speaks of is the very real social stigma faced by survivors of sexual violence in the wake of brutal conflict. “I would go to communities, but everyone would say, ‘Nobody was raped here – why are you talking about it?’”, remarked Feride Rushiti, founder of the Kosovo Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (KRCT).

Today, KRCT has more than 400 clients— barely a scratch on the surface given that rape was used in Kosovo as an “instrument of war” as recently as two decades ago. Some 20,000 women and girls are thought to have been assaulted during the bloody conflict; the fact that the artists whose work is featured in the Colours of our Soul exhibition did not sign their work or openly attend the installation’s grand opening is a sign of how pervasive the stigma is which haunts Kosovar society to this day.

As acute as this stigma is for the women who were assaulted, it is far worse for the children born from rape, who have thus far been excluded from reparation measures and instead dismissed as “the enemy’s children.” In 2014, the Kosovar parliament passed a law recognising the victim status of survivors, entitling them to a pension of up to 220 euros per month. Their children, however, many of whom were murdered or abandoned in the face of community pressure, are barely acknowledged in Kosovar society and have become a generation of young adults who have inherited the bulk of their country’s dark burden.

A global problem

It’s a brutal stigma which affects children born of wartime rape all over the world. The Lai Dai Han, born to Vietnamese mothers raped by South Korean soldiers, have struggled for years to find acceptance in the face of a society that views them as dirty reminders of a war it would rather forget. The South Korean government has yet to heed any calls for formal recognition of sexual violence at the hands of Korean troops, let alone issue a public— and long-awaited— apology to the Lai Dai Han or their mothers.

In many cases, as in the case of Bangladesh’s struggle for independence, the very existence of children born from rape has often been used as a brutal weapon by government forces and militants alike. Official estimates indicate that a mammoth 200,000 to 400,000 women were raped by the Pakistani military and the supporting Bihari, Bengali Razakar and al-Badr militias in the early 1970s. The children fathered, at gunpoint, by Pakistani men were intended to help eliminate Bengali nationhood.

Their surviving mothers are now known as “Birangana”, or “brave female soldier,” though the accolade means little in the face of a lifetime of ostracization and alienation. “I was married when the soldiers took me to their tents to rape me for several days and would drop me back home. This happened several times,” one so-called Birangana explained, “So, my husband left me with my son and we just managed to exist.”

No end in sight

Unfortunately, this barbaric tactic of rape and forced impregnation is one that is still being used in genocides to this day. The subjugation of the Rohingya people, for example, which culminated in a murderous crackdown last year by Myanmar’s military, means an estimated 48,000 women will give birth in refugee camps this year alone. Barring a major societal shift, the children they bear will suffer ostracization similar to that seen in Kosovo, Vietnam and Bangladesh.

Initiatives like the Colours of Our Soul installation in Pristina are not only central in helping wartime rape survivors to heal, but also play a vital role in cutting through the destructive stigma for violated women and their children. Even so, if the number of women who submitted their paintings anonymously is anything to go by, true rehabilitation is a long way ahead.

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EU–South Africa Summit: Strengthening the strategic partnership

MD Staff

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At the 7th European Union–South Africa Summit held in Brussels Leaders agreed on a number of steps to reinforce bilateral and regional relations, focusing on the implementation of the EU-South Africa Strategic Partnership. This includes economic and trade cooperation and pursuing the improvement of business climate and opportunities for investment and job creation which are of mutual interest.

Leaders also discussed common global challenges, such as climate change, migration, human rights, committing to pursue close cooperation both at bilateral level and on the global stage. A number of foreign and security policy issues, including building and consolidating peace, security and democracy in the African continent and at multilateral level were also raised. Leaders finally committed to work towards a prompt resolution of trade impediments affecting smooth trade flows.

Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission and Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, represented the European Union at the Summit. South Africa was represented by its President, Cyril Ramaphosa. EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission, Federica Mogherini, Vice-President for Jobs, Growth, Investment and Competitiveness Jyrki Katainen and Commissioner for trade Cecilia Malmström also participated, alongside several Ministers from South Africa.

President Juncker said: “The European Union, for the South African nation, is a very important trade partner. We are convinced that as a result of today’s meeting we will find a common understanding on the open trade issues. South Africa and Africa are very important partners for the European Union when it comes to climate change, when it comes to multilateralism. It is in the interest of the two parties – South Africa and the European Union – to invest more. It will be done.” A Joint Summit Statement issued by the Leaders outlines amongst others commitment to:

Advance multilateralism and rules based governance

Leaders recommitted to work together to support multilateralism, democracy and the rules-based global order, in particular at the United Nations and global trade fora. South Africa’s upcoming term as an elected member of the United Nations Security Council in 2019-2020 was recognised as an opportunity to enhance cooperation on peace and security. As part of their commitment to stronger global governance, Leaders stressed their support to the process of UN reform, including efforts on the comprehensive reform of the UN Security Council and the revitalisation of the work of the General Assembly. Leaders reiterated their determination to promote free, fair and inclusive trade and the rules-based multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organisation at its core and serving the interest of all its Members.

Bilateral cooperation

Leaders agreed to step up collaboration in key areas such as climate change, natural resources, science and technology, research and innovation, employment, education and training including digital skills, health, energy, macro-economic policies, human rights and peace and security. The EU and South Africa will, amongst others, explore the opportunities provided by the External Investment Plan. Linked to this, Leaders committed to exploring opportunities for investment, technical assistance including project preparation, and the improvement of business and investment climates to promote sustainable development. Leaders welcomed the conclusion and provisional implementation in 2016 of the EU-Southern African Development Community (SADC) – Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA).

Leaders also committed to find mutually acceptable solutions to impediments to trade in agriculture, agri-food and manufactured goods. They agreed to work towards a prompt resolution of these impediments.

Regional cooperation

Leaders welcomed the new Africa-Europe Alliance for Sustainable Investment and Jobs put forward by the European Commission. They exchanged views on foreign and security policy issues, addressed a number of pressing situations in the neighbourhoods of both the EU and South Africa, and welcomed each other’s contribution to fostering peace and security in their respective regions. Leaders agreed to explore opportunities to enhance cooperation on peace and security, conflict prevention and mediation.

Leaders confirmed common resolve to reform the future relationship between the EU and the countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States. To this end they are looking forward to the successful conclusion of negotiations for a post-Cotonou Partnership Agreement, that will contribute to attaining the goals of both the United Nations 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development and the long-term vision for African continent – Agenda 2063.

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Macron so far has augmented French isolation

Mohammad Ghaderi

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French President Emmanuel Macron has recently criticized the unilateral pullout of the US from the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) but at the same time expressed pleasure that Washington has allowed France and the other JCPOA signatories to stay in the Iran nuclear deal.

In an exclusive interview with the CNN, Macron said that he has “a very direct relationship” with Trump. “Trump is a person who has tried to fulfill his electoral promises, as I also try to fulfill my promises, and I respect the action that Trump made in this regard. But I think we can follow things better, due to our personal relationship and talks. For instance, Trump has decided to withdraw from the Iran pact, but at the end, he showed respect for the signatories’ decision to remain in the JCPOA.”

There are some key points in Macron’s remarks:

First, in 2017, the French were the first of the European signatories to try to change the JCPOA. They tried to force Iran to accept the following conditions: Inspection of military sites, application of the overtime limitation on nuclear activities, limiting regional activities, including missile capabilities within the framework of the JCPOA.

Macron had already made commitments to President Trump and Israel’s Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to push Iran to accept the additional protocols to the deal, and he pushed to make it happen before Trump left the JCPOA.

Second, after the US withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal, although France expressed regret, they had secret negotiations with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo over the JCPOA.

The result of the undisclosed talks was deliberate delay on the part of the European authorities in providing a final package to keep the Iran deal alive. In other words, after the US unilaterally left the JCPOA, the French have been sloppy and maybe somewhat insincere about making the practical moves to ensure it would be saved.

Third, France has emphasized the need to strengthen their multilateralism in the international system and has become one of the pieces of the puzzle that completes the strategic posture of the Trump Administration in the West Asia region.

Obviously, French double standards have irritated European politicians, many of whom have disagreed with the contradictory games of French authorities towards the US and issues of multilateralism in the international community. Also, France’s isolation and its strategic leverage in the political arena has grown since the days of Sarkozy and Hollande. Some analysts thought that Macron and fresh policies would stop this trend, but it has not occurred.

First published in our partner MNA

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