Acknowledging the huge untapped potentials in Russia’s industrial technology and emerging economic opportunities, a number of African countries participated in the International Industrial Trade Fair INNOPROM – 2017 held from 10 till 13 July in Yekaterinburg, a city in the Urals region about 1,700 kilometers from Moscow.
INNOPROM – 2017 has been described as a unique communication platform showcasing latest developments of industrial technologies and facilitating discussions of relevant issues on development of the sector in Russia.
Russian President Vladimir Putin took part in the official opening ceremony of the industrial fair which indicated explicitly that Russia is open to long-term, mutually beneficial industrial and technology partnership.
“It is very important to see the actual efficiency of these technologies and their practical results, such as better labor conditions, increased productivity, reduced costs, contemporary levels of management, and, finally, increased competitiveness of Russian products, goods, and services,” Putin said.
For the past few years, Russia has created comfortable possible conditions for investing in the Russian economy and industry – first and foremost, in infrastructure projects and high value-added manufacturing.
The industrial exhibition is an annual gathering of key Russian and international manufacturers, government officials, businessmen, representatives of academic and diplomatic community. BRICS member states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) were prominently represented.
According media reports, this year’s industrial event brought together over 640 industrial companies from 20 countries. The main theme was “Smart Manufacturing: Global Approach” within which many topical issues were discussed and special regional forum such as s session on Russia-Africa, were held.
The Russia Africa session attracted delegates from Algeria, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Namibia, Tanzania, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
The South African Embassy in the Russian Federation together with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) mounted a stand, and SA Ambassador Simbada Thusi lead a delegation to the fair. A small delegation from Ghana including Chris Kisiedu (Director) and Bernard Blewu (Chief Operating Officer) from Centroid Supplies and Logistics Limited, and Evans Kojo Danyo (Chief Executive Officer) of EVANMIKE Multi purpose company Ltd were at the INNOPROM.
For most Africans, who were at Yekaterinburg in July, visited to experience for themselves the beautiful, fascinating and well-touching city, the venue for show-casing Russia’s science and technology. Some of them, however, told me in remarks that Africans seeking business partnership and other businesses have to travel and participate often in these first class international exhibitions and conferences hosted in Russia.
“We highly value this as it offers us an insight into the scientific and landmarked achievements, and it is necessary to study emerging business opportunities. It’s very promising and if only African countries intensify the economic cooperation, more could be achieved with Russia,” James Thedelmiye, an African participant said.
In the opinion of Zimbabwean Ambassador Mike Sango, who also visited the fair, “INNOPROM has of recent included the Russia-Africa Forum on its sidelines. This Forum provides an opportunity for interaction between African and Russian business where they can establish contacts with a view to creating partnerships and investment in Africa. Apart from this interactive objective, INNOPROM exposes Africa to latest innovations in production technologies on display from global innovators. This helps them keep pace with these developments which if adopted can make their own products competitive on the global markets.”
As a further indication of optimism, Ambassador Sango explains that African ambassadors in the Russian Federation have been and continue to educate and inform their businesses that the west no longer holds monopoly over technological innovation and development as has been the perception in years past. For this reason, each year, the number of African governments and businesses attending the exhibition from Africa has been growing.
Zimbabwe has been to INNOPROM for the second year running. In 2016, the Deputy Minister of Industry and Commerce, Chiratidzo Iris Mabuwa, was at INNOPROM. This year the Minister, Mike Bimha, himself came leading a delegation from the energy sector, the mining sector, trade promotion and the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe hopes to bring more business people at the next episode.
It was a wonderful experience for Rex Essenowo, Chairman of NIDO Russia, who explained the Ghana News Agency (GNA) in an interview that INNOPROM – 2017 proved that modernization is setting pace in Russia. Most of the technologies displayed are innovation and very suitable for Africa. As a global non-profit association, NIDO is the Nigerians in the Diaspora Organization.
“There are a lot more new Russian technologies with more emphasis on cost effectiveness, energy and ecological friendly which can also enable African countries develop her resources more effectively. It’s always good to reach out and Russia remains a powerful link to providing soft landing solutions in heavy industries and other important economic development areas,” he told GNA.
Essenowo further that “We need to create new opportunities for African government and businesses to access and explore the Russian and the CIS markets. To this regard, we have to raise the level of awareness and expand our reach, so that African people can reap the dividend of international cooperation with creation of new jobs and solving technological problems, while developing our economies.
For most African participants, the exhibition proves very useful for networking and discussing business and further serves as an important study platform useful for deepening knowledge about the modern industrial production and achievements already recorded in the economy and to seek possible ways of transacting business in Russia.
The B2B Export Group of Companies, the organizer of the African session that noted on its website that the VII Russian-African session held within the fair is “in the spirit of global integration the forum engages political, business, academy and other important thought leaders in collaborative efforts to shape trade and industry development between Russia and the African continent.”
It pledges further to work together to define challenges, solutions and actions, always keeping in mind the best interests of our people and their needs for safety and prosperity.
Asia Needs a Region-Wide Approach to Harness Fintech’s Full Potential
Asia’s policy makers should strengthen cooperation to harness the potential of new financial technologies for inclusive growth. At the same time, they should work together to ensure they can respond better to the challenges posed by fintech.
New technologies such as mobile banking, big data, and peer-to-peer transfer networks are already extending the reach of financial services to those who were previously unbanked or out of reach, boosting incomes and living standards. Yet, fintech also comes with the risk of cyber fraud, data security, and privacy breaches. Disintermediation of fintech services or concentration of services among a few providers could also pose a risk to financial stability.
These and other issues were discussed at the High-Level Policy Dialogue on Regional Cooperation to Support Innovation, Inclusion, and Stability in Asia, organized by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Bank Indonesia, and the ASEAN+3 Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO).
The panel comprised Ms. Neav Chanthana, Deputy Governor of the National Bank of Cambodia; Mr. Diwa Guinigundo, Deputy Governor of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas; Ms. Mary Ellen Iskenderian, President and Chief Executive Officer of Women’s World Banking; Mr. Ravi Menon, Managing Director of the Monetary Authority of Singapore; Mr. Takehiko Nakao, President of ADB; Mr. Abdul Rasheed, Deputy Governor, Bank Negara Malaysia, and Mr. Veerathai Santiprabhob, Governor of the Bank of Thailand. Mr. Mirza Adityaswara, Senior Deputy Governor of Bank Indonesia, gave the opening remarks at the conference and Ms. Junhong Chang, Director of AMRO, gave the welcome remarks.
“Rapidly spreading new financial technologies hold huge promise for financial inclusion,” said Mr. Nakao. “We must foster an enabling environment for the technologies to flourish and strengthen regional cooperation to build harmonized regulatory standards and surveillance systems to prevent international money laundering, terrorism financing, and cybercrimes.”
“Technology is an enabler that weaves our economies and financial systems together, transmitting benefits but also risks across borders,” said Ms. Chang. “Given East Asia’s rapid economic growth, understanding and managing the impact of technology in our financial systems is essential for policymakers to maintain financial stability.”
“Asia, including Indonesia, is an ideal place for fintech to flourish,” said Mr. Adityaswara. “In Indonesia’s case, there are more than a quarter of a billion people living on thousand of islands, waiting to be integrated with the new technology; young people eager to enter the future digital world; more than fifty million small and medium-sized enterprises which can’t wait to get on board with e-commerce; a new society driven by a dynamic, democratic middle class which views the digital economy as something as inevitable as evolution.”
Despite Asia’s high economic growth in recent years, the financial sector is still under-developed in some countries. Fewer than 27% of adults in developing Asia have a bank account, well below the global median of 38%. Meanwhile, just 84% of firms have a checking or savings account, on a par with Africa but below Latin America’s 89% and emerging Europe’s 92%.
Financial inclusion could be increased through policies to promote financial innovation, by boosting financial literacy, and by expanding and upgrading digital infrastructure and networks. Regulations to prevent illegal activities, enhance cyber security, and protect consumers’ rights and privacy, would also build confidence in new financial technologies.
Cutting-edge tech a ‘double-edged sword for developing countries’
The latest technological advances, from artificial intelligence to electric cars, can be a “double-edged sword”, says the latest UN World Economic and Social Survey (WESS 2018), released on Monday.
The over-riding message of the report is that appropriate, effective policies are essential, if so-called “frontier technologies” are to change the world for the better, helping us to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and addressing climate change: without good policy, they risk exacerbating existing inequality.
Amongst several positive indicators, WESS 2018 found that the energy sector is becoming more sustainable, with renewable energy technology and efficient energy storage systems giving countries the opportunity to “leapfrog” existing, often fossil fuel-based solutions.
The wellbeing of the most vulnerable is being enhanced through greater access to medicines, and millions in developing countries now have access to low-cost financial services via their mobile phones.
Referring to the report, UN Secretary-General António Guterres said that “good health and longevity, prosperity for all and environmental sustainability are within our reach if we harness the full power of these innovations.”
However, the UN chief warned of the importance of properly managing the use of new technologies, to ensure there is a net benefit to society: the report demonstrates that unmanaged implementation of developments such as artificial intelligence and automation can improve efficiency but also destroy quality jobs.
“Clearly, we need policies that can ensure frontier technologies are not only commercially viable but also equitable and ethical. This will require a rigorous, objective and transparent ongoing assessment, involving all stakeholders,” Mr. Guterres added
The Survey says that proactive and effective policies can help countries to avoid pitfalls and minimize the economic and social costs of technology-related disruption. It calls for regulation and institutions that promote innovation, and the use of new technologies for sustainable development.
With digital technology frequently crossing borders, international cooperation, the Survey shows, is needed to bring about harmonized standards, greater flexibility in the area of intellectual property rights and ensuring that the market does not remain dominated by a tiny number of extremely powerful companies.
Here, the UN has a vital role to play, by providing an objective assessment of the impact that emerging technologies have on sustainable development outcomes – including their effects on employment, wages and income distribution – and bringing together people, business and organizations from across the world to build strong consensus-led agreements.
Our Trust Deficit with Artifical Intelligence Has Only Just Started
“We suffer from a bad case of trust-deficit disorder,” said UN Secretary-General António Guterres in his recent General Assembly speech. His diagnosis is right, and his focus on new technological developments underscores their crucial role shaping the future global political order. Indeed, artificial intelligence (AI) is poised to deepen the trust-deficit across the world.
The Secretary-General, echoing his recently released Strategy on New Technologies, repeatedly referenced rapidly developing fields of technology in his speech, rightly calling for greater cooperation between countries and among stakeholders, as well as for more diversity in the technology sector. His trust-deficit diagnosis reflects the urgent need to build a new social license and develop incentives to ensure that technological innovation, in particular AI, is deployed safely and aligned with the public interest.
However, AI-driven technologies do not easily fit into today’s models of international cooperation, and will in fact tend to undermine rather than enforce global governance mechanisms. Looking at three trends in AI, the UN faces an enormous set of interrelated challenges.
AI and Reality
First, AI is a potentially dominating technology whose powerful – both positive and negative –implications will be increasingly difficult to isolate and contain. Engineers design learning algorithms with a specific set of predictive and optimizing functions that can be used to both empower or control populations. Without sophisticated fail-safe protocols, the potential for misuse or weaponization of AI is pervasive and can be difficult to anticipate.
Take Deepfake as an example. Sophisticated AI programs can now manipulate sounds, images and videos, creating impersonations that are often impossible to distinguish from the original. Deep-learning algorithms can, with surprising accuracy, read human lips, synthetize speech, and to some extent simulate facial expressions. Once released outside of the lab, such simulations could easily be misused with wide-ranging impacts (indeed, this is already happening at a low level). On the eve of an election, Deepfake videos could falsely portray public officials being involved in money-laundering or human rights abuses; public panic could be sowed by videos warning of non-existent epidemics or cyberattacks; forged incidents could potentially lead to international escalation.
The capacity of a range of actors to influence public opinion with misleading simulations could have powerful long-term implications for the UN’s role in peace and security. By eroding the sense of trust and truth between citizens and the state—and indeed amongst states—truly fake news could be deeply corrosive to our global governance system.
AI Reading Us
Second, AI is already connecting and converging with a range of other technologies—including biotech—with significant implications for global security. AI systems around the world are trained to predict various aspects of our daily lives by making sense of massive data sets, such as cities’ traffic patterns, financial markets, consumer behaviour trend data, health records and even our genomes.
These AI technologies are increasingly able to harness our behavioural and biological data in innovative and often manipulative ways, with implications for all of us. For example, the My Friend Cayla smart doll sends voice and emotion data of the children who play with it to the cloud, which led to a US Federal Trade Commission complaint and its ban in Germany. In the US, emotional analysis is already being used in the courtroom to detect remorse in deposition videos. It could soon be part of job interviews to assess candidates’ responses and their fitness for a job.
The ability of AI to intrude upon—and potentially control—private human behaviour has direct implications for the UN’s human rights agenda. New forms of social and bio-control could in fact require a reimagining of the framework currently in place to monitor and implement the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and will certainly require the multilateral system to better anticipate and understand this quickly emerging field.
AI as a Conflict Theatre
Finally, the ability of AI-driven technologies to influence large populations is of such immediate and overriding value that it is almost certain to be the theatre for future conflicts. There is a very real prospect of a “cyber race” in which powerful nations and large technology platforms enter into open competition for our collective data as the fuel to generate economic, medical and security supremacy across the globe. Forms of “cyber-colonization” are increasingly likely, as powerful states are able to harness AI and biotech together to understand and potentially control other countries’ populations and ecosystems.
Towards Global Governance of AI
Politically, legally and ethically, our societies are not prepared for the deployment of AI. The UN, established many decades before the emergence of these technologies, is in many ways poorly placed to develop the kind of responsible governance that will channel AI’s potential away from these risks and towards our collective safety and wellbeing. In fact, the resurgence of nationalist agendas across the world may point to a dwindling capacity of the multilateral system to play a meaningful role in the global governance of AI. Major corporations and powerful member states may see little value in bringing multilateral approaches to bear on what they consider lucrative and proprietary technologies.
There are, however, some important ways in which the UN can help build the kind of collaborative, transparent networks that may begin to treat our “trust-deficit disorder.” The Secretary-General’s recently-launched High-Level Panel on Digital Cooperation, is already working to build a collaborative partnership with the private sector and establish a common approach to new technologies. Such an initiative could eventually find ways to reward cooperation over competition, and to put in place common commitments to using AI-driven technologies for the public good.
Perhaps the most important challenge for the UN in this context is one of relevance, of re-establishing a sense of trust in the multilateral system. But if the above trends tell us anything, it is that AI-driven technologies are an issue for every individual and every state, and that without collective, collaborative forms of governance, there is a real risk that it will be a force that undermines global stability.
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