Connect with us

Central Asia

Queen Tomyris of the Massagetai: A woman who dared or a woman who cared?

Published

on

Throughout the millenia an image of a submissive and caring woman has been conveyed. Delving into ancient history, one could discover an amazing chronicle of Queen Tomyris who reigned over the nation of the Massagetai. Bold and successful, this woman seemed to challenge conventional views.

Still, as the account is provided by Herodotus, an  ancient Greek historian, it is possible to observe that the image of a successful ruler is reverted to portray a more recognizable and traditional character.

The Massagetai were a nomadic people living in Central Asia and north-east of the Caspian Sea in the VI-V centuries B.C., albeit the precise territory of their dwelling remains so far contested. Meanwhile, the Persian king Cyrus began to consolidate the Achaemenid Empire which soon started to expand. In the Clio book, Herodotus of Halicarnassus recounts the attempts by Cyrus to conquer the nation of Massagetai.

According to Herodotus, at that time the Massagetai were ruled by Queen Tomyris, who was enthroned after the death of the late king (I.205). In the beginning, Cyrus decided to act by craft pretending that he wanted to marry Queen Tomyris. However, Tomyris could decipher that he in fact wished to gain control over the kingdom of the Massagetai, and therefore rejected his proposal. Upon this rejection, Cyrus started to organise a military expedition (Herodotus:I.205). As he was amidst the preparations, Tomyris sent him a herald urging him to refrain from waging a war, reign over his own people and let the kingdom of Massagetai rule those whom they ruled (Herodotus:I.206). Otherwise , if King Cyrus was “greatly anxious to make trial of the Massagetai in fight”,Tomyris called on to commence the battle soon (Herodotus:I.206). In a surprise attack, the army of Cyrus killed many Massagetai warriors and captured Spargapises, the son of Tomyris, who killed himself upon the realization of his “evil case” (Herodotus:I.211-213).

Shortly thereafter, another battle followed, and the Massagetai were victorious this time, as the battle was “of all the battles fought by Barbarians (…) the fiercest” (Herodotus:I.214). The army of Cyrus was completely defeated, and the king himself fell dead. The vengeful Tomyris filled a wineskin with the blood of the fallen soldiers. She ordered then to find the dead kind and to behead him, and put his head down to the wineskin saying “”Though I yet live and have overcome thee in fight, nevertheless thou didst undo me by taking my son with craft: but I according to my threat will give thee thy fill of blood.”(Herodotus: I.214). The chronicle then proceeds to describe the Massagetai people, their ways of life, customs and religion. 

Apparently, Queen Tomyris represents an example of a wise, courageous and an able ruler. First, the Queen reveals her wisdom, as she deciphers the vile intentions of Cyrus in due time. Then, she displays courage in the face of the looming war. Finally, under her guidance the army of the Massagetai was able to destroy the adversary, and thus, win the battle. Arguably, the very fact that this occurrence took place provides a progressive view of a woman as a ruler and a mighty defender of the land.

Yet, in the Clio book a number of restrictive suggestions are introduced in order to ‘reconcile’ the unusual image of a female ruler with the existing perceptions. In the beginning, a subtle explanation, or rather, an excuse is provided for Tomyris being a ruler of the Massagetai Kingdom. Herodotus describes, “now the ruler of the Massagetai was a woman, who was queen after the death of her husband, and her name was Tomyris”(Herodotus:I.205). The chronicles suggest that it is in light of the unfortunate premature death of her husband, the late king, that Tomyris ascended the throne. Furthermore, her being a woman is pointed out in the first place. Then, as the Persian King Cyrus expresses his wish to marry Tomyris, it is implied that being a single woman can be precarious. Following the rejection, Cyrus makes preparations for a military invasion. In a humiliating gesture, the Queen initially sends a herald who calls on the king not to attack the kingdom. Strikingly, this act does not receive any condemnation, and is tributed as an expected move.  It is likely that the existing social perceptions of a woman did not suggest the Queen would be willing to wage a war. To this end, one could also wonder, whether a similar gesture performed by a male ruler could be regarded as cowardly, while in the case of Tomyris a concession is made due to her gender. Finally, the image of a female ruler is supplemented with her motherhood. Suddenly, motherhood intervenes the realm of state affairs, as it is narrated that Tomyris became vengeful only because her son fell dead. In this regard, neither the perished soldiers nor the harm inflicted upon the land are mentioned. Considering this, one could suggest that Tomyris has been implicitly bereft of her role as a ruler, and rather associated with a more traditional image of a grieving mother.

Arguably, in the Clio book, attempts were made to reconcile the unfitting image of Tomyris with the more traditional perceptions held in ancient societies. This was achieved using a number of subtle implications drawing on more familiar notions of marriage and motherhood, associated with women. Reading the last lines, one could particularly observe that the image of a wise, courageous and mighty ruler is strikingly reduced to a grieving mother who indulges herself in revenge. In this light, the outline of Tomyris as provided in the Clio book by Herodotus offers yet another example of the attempts to re-draw the images going beyond conventional perceptions.

Continue Reading
Comments

Central Asia

Productive Employment Needed to Boost Growth in Tajikistan

MD Staff

Published

on

Tajikistan will need to create enough jobs to maximize productivity of the country’s increasing working-age population and spur economic growth, says a new Asian Development Bank (ADB) report.

In its new Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2018, ADB projects Tajikistan’s gross domestic product (GDP) growth to reach 6% in 2018 and 6.5% in 2019. GDP growth for the country stood at 7.1% in 2017. ADO is ADB’s annual flagship economic publication.

“Tajikistan has a young population and the percentage of working-age people is projected to continue rising to 2030. In many countries, this has led to higher growth from a ‘demographic dividend’,” said Pradeep Srivastava, ADB Country Director for Tajikistan. “But for Tajikistan to benefit from such a dividend, it needs to undertake structural reforms to improve the investment climate, increase human capital and skills, and let entrepreneurship flourish to create productive jobs for the workforce.”

Despite Tajikistan’s economy growing at an average of about 7.2% from 1997 to 2016, the country is not creating enough productive jobs for its growing working-age population, which grew by 3% annually from 1991 to 2016. However, employment only rose by 0.7% annually over the same period. The report notes the need for structural reforms to improve the country’s business climate—for example, reducing and consolidating the number of inspection bodies, creating a healthier banking sector to facilitate lending, and streamlining procedures for issuing construction permits, paying taxes, and enforcing contracts.

The report also highlights the importance of strengthening local value chains and helping small and medium-sized enterprises improve their productivity and earnings to promote job creation. Assessing demand for various skills and using that information to improve job training can match workforce skills to market demand.

ADB’s growth forecasts for Tajikistan in 2018 comes on the back of expected fiscal tightening from the government to address the high ratio of public debt to GDP, which will likely constrain public investment, and a weak banking sector curbing private investment. The slight recovery in growth projection in 2019 is based on expected gains in the country’s manufacturing and mining sectors, as well as strengthened remittances.

Inflation is forecast to accelerate to 7.5% in 2018—reflecting higher liquidity spurred by potential sizable bank recapitalization, public salary and electricity tariff hikes, and modest somoni depreciation—before easing back to 7.0% in 2019. In 2017, inflation reached 6.7%.

ADB is celebrating 20 years of development partnership with Tajikistan in 2018. To date, ADB has approved around $1.6 billion in concessional loans, grants, and technical assistance to the country. ADB and Tajikistan’s development partnership, which began in 1998, has restored and built the country’s new transport and energy infrastructure, supported social development, expanded agricultural production, and improved regional cooperation and trade.

Continue Reading

Central Asia

ILO Reports Important Progress on Child Labour and Forced Labour in Uzbek Cotton Fields

MD Staff

Published

on

A new International Labour Organization report to the World Bank finds that the systematic use of child labour in Uzbekistan’s cotton harvest has come to an end, and that concrete measures to stop the use of forced labour have been taken.

The report Third-party monitoring of measures against child labour and forced labour during the 2017 cotton harvest in Uzbekistan is based on more than 3,000 unaccompanied and unannounced interviews with a representative sample of the country’s 2.6 million cotton pickers. It shows that the country is making significant reforms on fundamental labour rights in the cotton fields.

“The 2017 cotton harvest took place in the context of increased transparency and dialogue. This has encompassed all groups of civil society, including critical voices of individual activists. This is an encouraging sign for the future. However, there is still a lag between the sheer amount of new decrees and reforms being issued by the central government and the capacity to absorb and implement these changes at provincial and district levels,” says Beate Andrees, Chief of the ILO’s Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work Branch.

The ILO has been monitoring the cotton harvest for child labour since 2013. In 2015, it began monitoring the harvest for forced labour and child labour as part of an agreement with the World Bank.

Interviews carried out by the monitors took place in all provinces of the country and included cotton pickers and other groups which are directly or indirectly involved in the harvest such as local authorities, education and medical personnel. In addition, a telephone poll of 1,000 randomly selected persons was conducted. Before the harvest, the ILO experts organized training for some 6,300 people directly involved with the recruitment of cotton pickers.

The results confirm that the large majority of the 2.6 million cotton pickers engaged voluntarily in the annual harvest in 2017 and that there is a high level of awareness in the country about the unacceptability of both child and forced labour. The report confirms earlier findings that the systematic use of child labour in the cotton harvest has ended though continued vigilance is required to ensure that children are in school.

Instructions have been given by the Uzbek national authorities to local administrations to ensure that all recruitment of cotton pickers is on a voluntary basis. In September 2017, an order was given withdrawing certain risk groups (students, education and medical personnel) from the harvest at its early stage.

Moreover, cotton pickers’ wages have been increased in line with recommendations by the ILO and the World Bank. The ILO recommends that the government continues to increase wages and also addresses working conditions more broadly to further attract voluntary pickers.

Last September, Uzbekistan President Shavkat Mirziyoyev spoke before the United Nations General Assembly in New York where he pledged to end forced labour in his country and underscored his government’s engagement with the ILO. In November 2017, at the Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labour in Argentina, Uzbekistan also pledged to engage with independent civil society groups on the issue.

The ILO Third-Party Monitoring (TPM) project in Uzbekistan will now focus on the remaining challenges, particularly the need for further awareness raising and capacity building, which varies between provinces and districts. It will ensure that all those involved in recruitment will have the information and tools needed to ensure that cotton pickers are engaged in conformity with international labour standards.

The monitoring and results from a pilot project in the area of South Karkalpakstan also show that cotton picking economically empowers women in rural areas. The cotton harvest provides many women with a unique opportunity to earn an extra cash income which they control and can use to improve the situation of their families.

The ILO TPM Project is funded by a multi-donor trust fund with major contributions by the European Union, United States and Switzerland.

Continue Reading

Central Asia

Kazakhstan Launches Online Platform for Monitoring and Reporting Greenhouse Gases

MD Staff

Published

on

An online platform for monitoring, reporting and verifying emission sources and greenhouse gases (GHG) was officially launched today by the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the World Bank.

The platform is an essential element of the National Emissions Trading System of Kazakhstan, which was launched in 2013 as the country’s main instrument to regulate domestic CO2 emissions and to drive the development of low-carbon technologies. Today, the National Emissions Trading System of Kazakhstan covers all major companies in the energy, oil and gas sectors, mining, metallurgical, chemical and processing industries.

Since 2014, the World Bank Trust Fund Partnership for Market Readiness has provided technical assistance to Kazakhstan in supporting the implementation of the National Emissions Trading System of Kazakhstan and related climate change mitigation policies.

“Kazakhstan’s emissions trading system is the first of its kind in the Central Asia region,” said Ato Brown, World Bank Country Manager for Kazakhstan. “With support from the Partnership for Market Readiness, the country has made a great effort to develop policy options for mid- and long-term emissions pathways and to develop an action plan on GHG emissions reductions by 2030. The World Bank will continue to support the Government during the crucial stages of policy implementation.”

The platform enables Kazakhstan’s major emitters to transmit and record data on GHGs emissions, as well as trade online. The National Allocation Plan, adopted in January 2018, sets an emission cap for 129 companies for the period 2018-2020. Per the national allocation plan, quotas have been allocated until 2020.

“The electronic platform undoubtedly proves the evolution of the Kazakhstan emission control system, which will allow the monitoring, reporting and verification system to be upgraded to a much higher level,” said Sergei Tsoy, Deputy General Director of JSC Zhasyl Damu.

GHG data is confirmed by accredited bodies for verification and validation and transferred to the Cadastre using an electronic digital signature. To date, there are seven verification companies accredited in Kazakhstan, with five more in the process of accreditation.

The platform was developed by JSC Zhasyl Damu with the support of France’s Technical Center on Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases. The system is administered by JSC Zhasyl-Damu, while the beneficiaries are the Climate Change Department and the Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control of the Ministry of Energy of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Background

Kazakhstan is one of the largest emitters of GHG in Europe and Central Asia with total annual national emissions of 300.9 MtCO2e in 2015. The energy sector accounts for 82% of total GHG emissions, followed by agriculture (9.6%) and industrial processes (6.4%). More than 80% of produced electricity in Kazakhstan is coal-fired, followed by natural gas (7%) and hydro power (8%).

Kazakhstan proposed as its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) an economy-wide reduction of GHG emissions of 15% from 1990 emissions levels by 2030. Kazakhstan ratified the Paris Agreement in November 2016 and committed itself to the fulfilment of the proposed target as its first INDC. The objective will contribute to sustainable economic development as well as to the achievement of the long-term global goal of keeping global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius. 

Continue Reading

Latest

Middle East18 hours ago

A Mohammedan Game of Thrones: Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the Fight for Regional Hegemony

Authors: James J. Rooney, Jr. & Dr. Matthew Crosston* The people in the United States didn’t think well of those...

Middle East19 hours ago

Might Trump Ask Israel to Fund America’s Invasion-Occupation of Syria?

On 16 April 2018, the internationally respected analyst of Middle-Eastern affairs, Abdel Bari Atwan, headlined about Trump’s increasingly overt plan...

Economy21 hours ago

Financial Inclusion on the Rise, But Gaps Remain

Financial inclusion is on the rise globally, accelerated by mobile phones and the internet, but gains have been uneven across...

Newsdesk22 hours ago

ADB Operations Reach $32.2 Billion in 2017- ADB Annual Report

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) Annual Report 2017, released today, provides a clear, comprehensive, and detailed record of ADB’s operations,...

Middle East24 hours ago

Trump lacks proper strategy towards Middle East, Syria

About five years ago, when former US President Barack Obama spoke of a military strike in Syria, Zbigniew Brzezinski, former...

Tech1 day ago

The Ethical and Legal Issues of Artificial Intelligence

Ethics and law are inextricably linked in modern society, and many legal decisions arise from the interpretation of various ethical...

Middle East1 day ago

US: No Restitution to Syria

On April 22nd, an anonymous U.S. “Senior Administration Official” told a press conference in Toronto, that the only possible circumstance...

Newsletter

Trending

Copyright © 2018 Modern Diplomacy