[yt_dropcap type=”square” font=”” size=”14″ color=”#000″ background=”#fff” ] B [/yt_dropcap]usinesses need to step up the adoption of cutting-edge technologies, materials and processes if countries are to reap their full potential in terms of productivity gains, according to a new OECD report.
Development and implementation are taking place mostly in large firms, and even then new technologies are underemployed and could be contributing much more than is currently the case. The report highlights the potential effects of a wide range of technological developments in production – from the environmental impact of 3D printing, to autonomous digital systems and the latest advances in industrial biotechnology. Governments must seize the potential of technological advances to boost economic growth, living standards and environmental sustainability, but at the same time manage the risks and disruption this next “production revolution” will cause.
Policy makers have a key role to play in helping to create the right conditions for the adoption of new technologies and knowledge, particularly among smaller businesses. Action on multiple fronts is required. It includes encouraging life-long skills development and greater interaction between industry and education, improving conditions for business creation and development, and supplying the infrastructure needed by firms using advanced, digital technologies. Assisting research and technological scale-up and establishing agencies to aid the spread of technological innovation are also key.
Even in the most advanced economies, diffusion can be slow or partial. A 2015 survey of 4 500 German businesses, cited in the report, found only 4% had implemented digitalised and networked production processes or had plans to do so.
The productive potential of new technology is illustrated by estimates from Japan suggesting that the use of big data and analytics among some manufacturers could lower maintenance costs by almost JPY 5 trillion. More than JPY 50 billion could also be gained in electricity savings. And major energy savings have been recorded in early application of artificial intelligence (AI) to data centres.
Estimates for Germany indicate that the use of advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) in industry could boost productivity by 5% to 8%. Industrial component manufacturers and automotive companies are expected to achieve the biggest productivity improvements. Other estimates cited in the report suggest that a major acceleration in the adoption of new technology could boost value-added in Germany’s mechanical, electrical, automotive, chemical, agriculture and ICT sectors by an additional EUR 78 billion by 2025.
Many businesses lag in adopting the ICTs necessary to digitalise industrial production. The adoption by firms of cloud computing, supply-chain management, enterprise-resource planning, and radio-frequency identification (to automatically track processes and objects) is still far below that of broadband networks or websites.
The report points to research showing that productivity-enhancing technology causes job losses in some cases and job gains in others but that the overall employment and economic effects to date have been positive. This is not to underestimate the disruption caused by technological change and the hardship suffered by workers who have lost their jobs because of it. Implementing effective systems for life-long learning and ensuring labour markets can adapt to the shock of technological change are central to effective adjustment policies.
Meet the MilleXZials: Generational Lines Blur as Media Consumption for Gen X, Millennials and Gen Z Converge
American consumers’ appetite for streaming video continues to grow, and they have no qualms shelling out cash for original content, according to Deloitte’s 12th edition of the “Digital Media Trends Survey” (formerly the “Digital Democracy” Survey). The report found that 55 percent of U.S. households now subscribe to at least one video streaming service, a 450 percent increase since 2009.
The survey found, on average, Americans watch 38 hours per week of video content (39 percent of which is streamed), nearly the equivalent of a full-time job. With over 200 streaming video on demand (SVOD) options in the U.S., the average streaming video subscriber is paying for three services resulting in U.S. consumers collectively spending $2.1 billion per month on SVOD services. High-quality original content appears to be driving an increase in streaming with nearly half (48 percent) of all U.S. consumers streaming television content every day or weekly, up 11 percent year-over-year.
Conversely, the report found pay TV subscriptions declined for the first time in recent years with 63 percent of households still subscribing to a traditional Pay TV service, down from 75 percent. Pay TV’s decline is especially pronounced among Generation Z (ages 14-20), Millennials (ages 21-34) and Generation X (ages 35-51).
“Consumers now enjoy unparalleled freedom in selecting media and entertainment options and their expectations are at an all-time high,” said Kevin Westcott, vice chairman and U.S. media and entertainment leader, Deloitte LLP. “The rapid growth of streaming services and high quality original content has created a significant opportunity to monetize the on-demand environment in 2018.”
Pay TV penetration declines
With video streaming enabling unprecedented choice and access to content, consumers perceive a widening gap between their expectations and what pay TV companies deliver, according to the report:
- Nearly half (46 percent) of all pay TV subscribers said they are dissatisfied with their service and 70 percent of consumers feel they get too little value for their money.
- Among respondents who said they no longer have a pay TV subscription, 27 percent reported they cancelled their service within the last year.
- Furthermore, 22 percent of millennials say they have never subscribed to a pay TV service.
- Twenty-two percent of all consumers without pay TV say they don’t watch enough TV to justify the expense and another 19 percent say they simply cannot afford it.
- Fifty-six percent of current pay TV subscribers say they keep their pay TV because it’s bundled with their home internet access.
“As video streaming and demand for original content continue to grow, traditional and premium cable broadcasters will continue to rethink their business models,” continued Westcott. “Media companies are increasingly going direct-to-consumer with their own digital streaming services and snackable content. Ultimately, one challenge we see is that consumers may be reluctant to pay for exclusive content on top of their other paid subscription services and this may lead to some form of re-aggregation as limits on consumer spending could potentially hinder the growth of content platforms.”
The emergence of MilleXZials: 50 is the new 20
This year’s data indicates a convergence of media behavior across three key demographics. Gen X emerged as cutting-edge adopters of digital media embracing the digital media behaviors already adopted by Gen Z and millennials. Deloitte calls this combined demographic group “The MilleXZials.”
- Seventy percent of Gen Z households had a streaming subscription, closely followed by millennials at 68 percent and Gen X at 64 percent, respectively.
- About 70 percent of Gen Z and millennials stream movies compared with 60 percent of Gen X on a weekly basis.
- Binge-watching behavior also witnessed a convergence among MilleXZials:
- Ninety-one percent of Gen Z, 86 percent of millennials and 80 percent of Gen X binge-watch TV shows.
- More than 40 percent of millennials binge watch weekly, and they watch an average of seven episodes and six hours in a single setting.
- Ninety-six percent of MilleXZials multitask while watching TV.
“Millennials were the first generation to embrace streaming media and watching video content on smartphones,” said Dr. Jeff Loucks, the executive director, Deloitte Center for Technology, Media and Telecommunications, Deloitte LLP. “Some hoped that as millennials got older, they would settle down and watch pay TV. Instead, their Gen X parents are acting more like millennials, using streaming services, watching TV shows, movies and sports on smartphones and binge watching.”
Consumers want more control over their personal data
Consumers are increasingly concerned about putting their personal data online. The study found 69 percent of consumers believe that companies are not doing everything they can to protect their personal data. However, 73 percent of all consumers said they would be more comfortable sharing their data if they had some visibility and control and 93 percent of U.S. consumers believe they should be able to delete their online data when they want.
The 12th edition of Deloitte’s Digital Media Trends survey provides insight into how five generations of U.S. consumers interact with media, products and services, mobile technologies and the internet. This year’s U.S. data was collected in November 2017 and employed an online methodology among 2,088 consumers.
Coding with impact: Training female tech talent from Latin America
“We want to train young women to make them talented and globally competitive software developers.”
Meet Mariana Costa Checa, a young social entrepreneur from Peru. She is the CEO and Co-founder of Laboratoria a company that has been training young women coding and software development skills in Latin America since 2014. Mariana will be attending Mobile Learning Week – UNESCO’s yearly flagship ICT in education event – taking place from 26 – 30 March 2018 in Paris.
What inspired you to start Laboratoria?
We started Laboratoria when I moved back to Lima after living abroad for many years. Before venturing into this, my two co-founders and I actually started a web development agency. It was through that experience that we realized there was a lot of demand for software developers, but that there was a big shortage of talent in that particular area. There were also very few women in that sector so there was a huge gender gap. Even in our team, we had 10 developers and all of them were men. We were puzzled by this disparity in a field with so many job opportunities. In contrast to other sectors, the field of software development is quite flexible in terms of the requirements for qualifications. Many talented individuals working in web development did not necessarily have degrees in computer science from prestigious schools. Some did not even have a degree at all. It is one of those fields where you do not necessarily need an actual degree to find a good job. With all this in mind, we saw the opportunity to create a social enterprise that would train young women in this skill set, and especially women who have not been able to access higher education due to their financial situations.
How did it all come together?
We started Laboratoria as a pilot project and we wanted to keep it very lean and focused. We created a curricula, secured a loan and partnered with two non-profit organizations in two different parts of the city to select a group of students to launch the programme. Our goal was to validate the idea and prove that we could actually teach coding skills to women who had no previous contact with technology and help them build a better future. We learned a lot after the initial pilot. Many of the students performed really well and we hired some of them in our agency and we placed others into other companies. We also realized that there was a lot of interest from the hiring companies who were impressed by the talents and they started reaching out to us. After the pilot, we decided to refine the project and in 2015, we turn it into a full-time, six-month bootcamp training programme with nearly a thousand hours of training to build not only the technical skills of our students but also the soft skills that are needed in the professional world. It has been a long process of adjusting and improving our programme to better prepare our students to make them globally competitive software developers. We have also been working with the hiring companies to create a smooth transition for them after their training. The average income of our graduates has been multiplied by three. We started in Lima, and we have already expanded to Santiago (Chile), Mexico City, Guadalajara (Mexico) and we are now setting up in São Paulo (Brazil). We managed to prove that our model was strong in terms of social impact and that it can be scaled to change the lives of young women across Latin America. To date, more than 580 students have graduated from Laboratoria, and they have been hired by more than 200 companies across the industry.
What is the recipe for a successful social enterprise?
It has been years of very hard work! And there is still so much more to be done. The most important thing for us was the focus on learning. Learning as much as we could, following a methodology to continuously improve our work. We are very focused on gathering data to monitor exactly how the programme is performing and to keep improving it. That is what has enabled us to track and improve our work in such a short period: we have built a culture around learning and we try to attract people who share the same mindset to work at our company. And we want to make sure that we do that with excellence by forming the best junior developers who are competitive in the global job market.
How can the digital and gender divide be tackled?
The digital divide and the gender divide are two issues that are of critical importance. As the economy is shifting and becoming more automated, we are seeing the depletion of many low-skilled jobs. And that is usually where women are overrepresented. But in high-skilled professions, particularly those related to tech where there are many job opportunities, women are underrepresented. Unless we urgently do something to change that ratio, women are going to be left out. The private sector needs to know that diversity adds value, not because they need to check in a box, but because their products will be better by having people from different backgrounds and experiences: it will ultimately benefit the companies. Accountability is a key factor, particularly from education institutions. They must ensure that they are training people with the right skills that are needed and that are relevant to succeed in today’s and tomorrow’s economy. Properly analyzing job prospects is essential because a diploma on its own is not going to do anything. As for governments, they should be enablers of the private sector and of civil society by putting the right incentives to help initiatives that tackle these issues and encouraging companies to be more diverse for a better use of technology.
What is your advice to young women – and young people in general – in today’s hyper-connected economy?
We are living in an era of unprecedented opportunities because of Internet, connectivity and the immense access to information. The most valuable skill-set is to know how to learn by yourself. Be curious to go out and take responsibility for your own learning process. That is what we teach our students at Laboratoria as well. Education is being challenged in all sorts of ways because the future of work is still being defined. People need to take advantage of the opportunities of access to information in order to shape their own paths.
Leveraging Community Mapping to another Level
Community Mapping, often referred to as Public Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS), can be used to narrate a story surrounding what is occurring everyday (at every second) in our communities. However, community mapping as we see it, can in some parts of the world be a drawing in the sand.
Whereas regular maps seek conformity, community maps embrace diversity in their presentation and content. That said, to be useful for outside groups such as state authorities, the closer the maps follow recognized cartographic conventions, the greater the likelihood they will be embraced as effective communication tools.
During Community Mapping events, community members come together to collect data, which by nature is varied – an inventory of health centers, restaurants, pedestrian infrastructure, toxic emissions, health conditions, the list is endless. The goal – improve the community, curb violence, and increase local economic revenue bases. Community mapping empowers the public by providing opportunities to have a lasting, positive influence on their community. The maps that are generated are used to document community needs and assist with consensus-building and decision-making for improved program designs and policies at a public-sector level.
There are several great websites which are creating training sessions on how to get people more involved in community mapping. Engaging Together is a U.K. organization aimed just this where they list all community assets present in the Dudley borough, and communicate how they use these assets to build relationships and strengthen communities by bringing together a contingency of individuals thus creating a sense of belonging. However, to create community mapping that sticks, one needs technology.
The next generation of community mapping is the Geme.io app which aims to include community asset mapping on various levels. This will help to stimulate and motivate change in the local society, and the app is specifically useful is when:
- There are people not engaged in their local community and/or isolated from relationships with their neighbors.
- A community is fractured with little belief that it can change.
- There are no community associations or where those that do exist are exhausted, characterized by low membership and dominated by public agency agendas.
- Agencies only see the community as a source of problems and needs and cannot visualize potential solutions.
- There is a group of people who organizations see as dependent – for example, people with learning disabilities. This people can thus be empowered.
- Communities and staff who both desire change and see the world differently. By making potential changes visible, assets are uncovered which is where change can thus occur.
Community Asset mapping levels – actual and potential:
The assets of community individuals: these are skills, knowledge, networks, time, interests and passions. Residents can be asked what is positive about where they live, and what they could do to make life better for their community. This can be done by a municipality using the app.
The assets of associations in community: this is not just formal community organizations or voluntary groups. It includes all the informal networks and ways that people come together: football teams, allotment associations, workplaces and so on. For example, a pub quiz team has members of interest, but it could also offer fundraising and networks.
The assets of organizations in community: this is not just the services that organizations deliver locally, but also the infrastructure assets they control, e.g., parks, community centers etc. In fact, it covers anything that could be put to the use of a community to improve its wellbeing. It includes staff and their influence and expertise.
The physical assets of a local community: the green space, unused land, buildings, streets, markets, and transportation in the area. Mapping these assets helps people to appreciate their value and to realize the potential productive uses.
The economic community assets: economic activity lies at the heart of rebuilding a community. What skills and talents are not being used in the local economy? How do local associations contribute to the local economy by attracting investment and generating jobs and income? Could public spending in the area be used to employ local people instead of outside professionals? How could the residents spend more of their money in local shops and businesses and increase local economic activity?
The cultural community assets: everyday life is full of creativity and culture. This involves the mapping of talents for music, drama, art and opportunities for everyone to express themselves in ways that reflect their values and identities.
We are asking all local authorities worldwide to embrace community mapping not as expert mapping, but as a human interaction mapping initiative. Let’s map together!
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