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Intercultural Dialogue reflected in Nakhchivan’s Cultural Monuments

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[yt_dropcap type=”square” font=”” size=”14″ color=”#000″ background=”#fff” ] U [/yt_dropcap]nder the patronage of the President of Azerbaijan H. E. Mr. Ilham Aliyev, Baku will be hosting the 4th World Forum on Intercultural Dialogue on May 5-6, 2017. The topic of this year’s Forum is: “Advancing Intercultural Dialogue: New Avenues for Human Security, Peace and Sustainable Development;” it is being organized in cooperation with UNESCO, UN Alliance of Civilizations and other prestigious international organizations.

As many influential international delegations will be visiting the Azerbaijani capital city of Baku; after the closing ceremony of the 4th Forum they ought to undertake a visit to the Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan, the westernmost province of Azerbaijan, which is an important landmark that uniquely depicts many developmental stages of human history, with monuments that reflect an elevated level of intercultural dialogue in the Eurasian landmass and beyond. While Nakhchivan has been facing a heavy Armenian economic blockade for over two decades, its government under the leadership of Nakhchivan’s Chairman of Supreme Assembly, the Honorable Vasif Yusif oğlu Talibov, has made important improvements, accomplishments towards the restoration of historical and cultural monuments in this region of Azerbaijan. Indeed, immediately upon their arrival, international dignitaries will find Nakhchivan to be worth the visit, after experiencing the majestic beauty of: the Momuna Khatun tomb (Mausoleum); the Garabaghlar tomb and the tomb of Yusif ibn Kuseyir.

The Momuna Khatun tomb (mausoleum) is a historical and architectural monument built in the city of Nakhchivan by Ajami Abubakr oglu Nakhchivani, the founder of Azerbaijani school of architecture and a very influential scholar to various European architecture schools.

The Momuna Khatun tomb, is a magnificent monument of Azerbaijan’s national architecture and a pearl of Eastern cultural monuments and architecture design. It was built in the Western side of Nakhchivan in 1186 and Shamsaddin Eldaniz, the founder of Azerbaijan’s Atabaylar State, gave the order to erect this monument above the tomb of his wife, Momuna Khatun. Its construction was finished by Mahammad Jahan Pahlavan, the son of the ruler, in April 1186.

At the top of this monument is written in Cufic inscription: “We pass away but only the wind is left behind us. While we die only labor and works remain as a gift.” The total height of the monument is 34 meters, later its cover of 8 meters tall was destroyed. This tomb consists of an underground (vault) and of high rising walls covered by rare works of art where overwhelming light blue contours make this cultural monument an architecture masterpiece where intercultural dialogue and historical treasures are softly intertwined.

According to M. V. Alpatov, a distinguished art historian: “The Momuna Khatun tomb in Nakhchivan is a monument of rare beauty;” it profoundly reflects the main theme of Nizami Ganjavi’s book entitled “Layla and Majnun.”

The Garabaghlar tomb is a historic and architectural monument of the Middle Ages located in Garabaghlar village of Kangarli region, it is an invaluable cultural treasure that has been recently restored and polished. In addition to the tomb there are the remnants of a double minaret and a religious building in the nearby courtyard.

The double minaret structure was built at the end of XII century and concluded at the beginning of XIII century; however, the head arch joining the minarets was added in the XIV century. This monument was built by Hulaku Khan to honor his wife Guti Khatin. In the oval shape placed on top of the minaret is written in Arabic: “The sign of God is Guti Khatin, and Turkmen.”

The walls shaping a structure of twelve angles over ground were built of stones and its dome was built with locally baked bricks. The outside layers of the Garabaghlar Tomb walls are decorated with inscriptions and geometric ornaments covered with red and turquoise glazed bricks; that are awaiting international visitors to appreciate and immerse into the depths of Nakhchivani culture, an important cornerstone in the Azerbaijani heritage of multicultural dialogue and religious tolerance. The content of these inscriptions is: “there is one God, but God’s follower is Mohammad,” it is written vertically several times inside this monument, which has four head arches (covered with blueish glaze and decorated with geometrical and botanical designs) and contains many phrases written in Naskh calligraphy. This cultural monument was built by Ahmad Ayyub oglu Hafiz Nakhchivani, the designer of Barda tomb, who has been very influential to the French architecture school in the XI Century.

Nakhchivan is the land of prophet Noah, an important figure of Islamic culture that has been at a center stage of Mesopotamian literature, Sumerian and Ancient Greek religious scriptures.

Another unique monument is the Tomb of Yusif Kuseyir Oglu, an architectural landmark in the city of Nakhchivan. It is situated in the avenue of Khiyabani, locally known as the dome of Atababa. This monument was restored at the beginning of XX Century. The monument consists of a well maintained underground vault and an aboveground tower shape section.

The aboveground section of the monument is octagonal inside and outside. The thickness of the walls is 80 cm and it was built by baked bricks (with the size of 20x20x4,5cm).

It has a prism shape with a pyramid shape outside and spherical dome inside. It is truly a rare structure of double dome that has reached our time. The tomb of Usif Kuseyir Oglu is the only monument in the Caucasus region thanks to its characteristic tower shape and architectural features that are intertwined together with cultural influences and religious art work.

There is no doubt that international delegations to the Fourth World Forum on International Dialogue will find a source of inspiration and bolster their knowledge in intercultural dialogue by feeling the pulse of Azerbaijani history in Nakhchivan.

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Squid Game, Style influence and Sustainable consumption

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Photo source: Netflix

Have you heard about the recent South Korean drama blockbuster named Squid Game yet? It was released on Netflix on Sept. 17, 2021, and has quickly earned a worldwide audience. Since debuting, it has been viewed by more than 100 million people and has become the no. 1 trending in top 10 lists in 94 countries around the world.

Not only topped the list, but the South Korean drama has also created a trend that has influenced fashion style around the world and dominated the online platforms such as Google, Facebook, Instagram, and several online shopping websites: Amazon, eBay, Shoppee, and so on.  On Google.com, you will find more than 223,000,000 results in only 0.53 seconds; on Amazon.com, the term “Squid Game costume” has also become a top finding, even when you have just typed only two characters “sq”, the full term “Squid Game costume” will appear and you can find more than a thousand of results about this kind of clothes. 6,150 results for Squid Game costume appear when searching on eBay. On Instagram and Facebook, the hashtag #SquidGameCostume has recently become the most popular key hashtag and could be the influent style this winter.

Unlike trending superhero movies like Captain American, Avengers, with characters wearing specialized and inconvenient costumes for daily use, “Squid Game” is full of players wearing banal teal-green tracksuits. And this style of wearing tracksuits has been promoted by luxury fashion brands such as Louis Vuitton and Channel in recent years, because of its convenience and full of fashion, suitable for almost everyone from children, young people, and adults. That’s why the seemingly simple tracksuits in “Squid Game” turned out to be more trending.

The green tracksuit will likely become popular because of its convenience and ease of production, but it’s not the only known outfit, one that’s probably even more sought-after is the set of hot pink boiler suits and black masks watch the spectacle. Halloween is just around the corner, this type of costume has the potentiality to become another “red jumpsuits and Salvador Dalí masks” – a phenomenon that comes from the previous hit Money Heist.  Clearly, Squid Game costume could be a perfect choice for the one who is looking for the new and trending Halloween costume, and fashion influencers may have to queue in line after Squid Game this Halloween and winter.

With marketing strategies in all aspects that an ordinary person can reach just by picking up the smartphone, it is not difficult for “Squid Game” to be accessible through advertisements, and finding a way to win in marketing could be more easily for fashion companies and even companies that are not engaged in the fashion industry. Netflix even sells Squid Game t-shirts and hoodies on its website, and it seems that marketing the products of trending movies will become the marketing trend in the future.

However, from the environmentalist or sustainable consumption supporters’ perspective, the influences of the fads can go against what they’re pursuing. Sustainable consumption is the use of services and related products, which responds to basic needs and brings a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of future generations. Sustainable consumption is closely related to sustainable production and sustainable lifestyles. When thinking about the relationship of a hot trend like Squid Game and its influence, we could see the 4M plus model (4M +) including Mass media marketing -Mass outfit obsession – Mass production – Mass consumption, and the plus could be the Mass damage for the environment. It may seem to be not a kind of mass production if it only happens once in a blue moon and only happens for one movie/show, but in fact, it is an unstoppable game that every director wants to win. Fashion’s influence could be a tool to reach the top trending show of the year and also be a push for the fashion industry and consumption later.

So, is the top trending show doing well in marketing and promoting fashion consumption by creating style influence, definitely Yes, but is it promoting sustainable consumption? I am not sure.

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The winner of the All About Photo Magazine contest is a picture of a happy Nenets family

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Photo: Yulia Nevskaya, "Tundra people"

The work of the Russian photographer Yulia Nevskaya “Tundra People” – a photograph of a happy woman from the Russian northern region of Taimyr surrounded by three children won first prize in the All About Photo Magazine travel photography competition. This photograph’s victory is particularly noteworthy for the UNESCO-announced Decade of Indigenous Languages (2022–2032), which will focus on the rights of native speakers of indigenous languages.

All About Photo is a free and independent magazine that has become one of the most vibrant portals of photography on the web. Moreover, All About Photo result is one of the most far-reaching online magazines where you can find everything related to photography.

Nevskaya worked a lot in the north of Russia, including with small peoples: the Nenets and the Sami. She took many photographs in one of the most interesting and northern cities of Russia – Norilsk.

This is how she described her trip.

“Norilsk is an industrial city, there are many industries that are harmful to the environment. This city was a revelation for me. I expected to see a smoky sky and an oppressive atmosphere. But the city turned out to be full of light, a combination of shades of white and blue against the background of the silence of the Arctic, “Nevskaya said.

The main enterprise of the city – Norilsk Nickel – has been actively cooperating with the indigenous people of the region for a long time.

The Taymyr Peninsula is a peninsula in the Far North of Russia, in the Siberian Federal District, that forms the northernmost part of the mainland of Eurasia. Administratively it is part of the Krasnoyarsk Krai Federal subject of Russia.

Nornickel has been cooperating with the Indigenous Minorities of the North for more than 30 years.

The photo shows Angelina Wanga with her children Denis, Linda and Dima. The picture was taken at the end of April. Snow in the tundra will melt only at the beginning of summer.

In July, at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, with the support of Norilsk Nickel, the exhibition “The World in the Faces” of the famous Russian photographer Alexander Khimushin was held. The author personally presented a collection of more than 170 artistic photographic portraits of representatives of different peoples of the world, shot in authentic national costumes in places of residence. The exhibition was dedicated to the upcoming International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People and Their Languages. It is a celebration of multiculturalism and our incredible ethnic diversity at its best.

In 2018, Khimushin went to the Russian Arctic – Taimyr. The result was a series of portraits of the region’s indigenous inhabitants – Dolgans, Nganasans, Enets, Nenets, Evenks.

Khimushin became the first Russian photographer to have an exhibition at the UN headquarters in New York. Works from The World in Faces project were exhibited at the University of Lille in France, and for six months were broadcast on the screen of the world’s largest digital art center in Bordeaux.

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Landmark report highlights untapped potential of Africa’s film industry

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Nigerian film actress Toyin Abraham was among entertainers who helped the UN share messages to address myths surrounding COVID-19./ Toyin Abraham

Africa’s film and audiovisual industries could create over 20 million jobs and contribute $20 billion to the continent’s combined Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the UN cultural agency, UNESCO, said on Tuesday in a new report highlighting this untapped potential. 

The African Film Industry: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities for Growth is the first-ever mapping of the sector, which currently employs some five million people and accounts for $5 billion in GDP across Africa.

Making creativity viable

Audrey Azoulay, the UNESCO Director-General, presented the report in Paris alongside esteemed filmmakers Abderrahmane Sissako and Mati Diop.

“This landmark publication reflects on the importance of strengthening international cooperation to enable all countries, in particular developing countries, to develop cultural and creative industries that are viable and competitive both nationally and internationally,” she said.

The report aims to help the African film industry, and decision-makers, to take stock of the current landscape and plan strategically for future growth.

Africa’s potential as a film powerhouse remains largely untapped, despite a significant growth in production across the continent, the report argues. Nigeria alone produces around 2,500 films a year.

Even though affordable digital film equipment and online platforms allow direct distribution to consumers, opening new avenues for content creators, Africa is the most underserved continent in terms of movie theatres.  Currently, there is only one cinema screen per 787,402 people.

Lights, camera, piracy

The film industry also faces the significant problem of piracy.  The UNESCO report estimates that 50 per cent to over 75 per cent of revenue is lost to piracy, though precise data does not exist.  Additionally, just 19 out of 54 African countries offer financial support to filmmakers.

The report outlines further challenges, including limitations on freedom of expression, as well as education, training and internet connectivity.

Films as ‘public goods’

This year marks two decades since the adoption of a UNESCO Declaration that upholds cultural diversity as being as necessary to humanity as biodiversity is to nature.

Ms. Azoulay said in commemorating the anniversary, “we must raise our voice to reaffirm that films are indeed ‘public goods’ that require public support and investment to ensure equal access to creation, production, distribution, dissemination and consumption.” 

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