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Abu Luqman– Father of the ISIS Emni: Organizational Structure, Current Leadership and Clues to its Inner Workings in Syria & Iraq

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Authors: Asaad H. Almohammad, Ph.D. & Anne Speckhard, Ph.D.

[yt_dropcap type=”square” font=”” size=”14″ color=”#000″ background=”#fff” ] I [/yt_dropcap]f ISIS were the German Nazis, the Emni (al-Amnyah in proper Arabic), i.e. the ISIS security/intelligence forces would be the Gestapo and the Abwehr combined. The civilians in its held territories would be the Imperial Japanese Army’s comfort women. The Emni is feared by ISIS members and civilians alike. As one of the most ruthless non-state actors,

ISIS is terrorized by a devil of its own making, with Saddam’s former intelligence officers in the core of its inception.[1] Since its origin, the Emni has instilled fear in its members, rival fighting groups, and civilians alike. From the killing of journalists and rivals, both in their strongholds and abroad, to plotting terrorist attacks in Europe, the Emni is instrumental in the execution of most, if not all, of ISIS’ atrocities. Arguably, the Emni also has far reaching influence on the global psyche and policy. This faction of ISIS is creating events on a monthly basis that are fuelling anti-immigrant sentiments and Islamophobia globally. From the rise of right wing movements and parties in Europe to the Muslim travel ban in the United States, the Emni, through their continuous operations and threats, have elicited tribalism across the globe as well as eroded sympathy for Syrians fleeing both Assad’s and ISIS’s brutal atrocities.

We are not asking you to be Philip K. Dick, but if you were to imagine a world without ISIS, would Brexit have happened? Would the United States limit, or prevent, victims of the Syrian war from finding a refuge in the nation of immigrants? If you have that vivid of an imagination, would Nigel Farage, Marine Le Pen, and Geert Wilders be global household names? The irony here is of course is that these three loathe nothing more than globalization. Which leads to the question of whether ISIS has had significant influence in making the liberal world order and globalization become so indecent in the West? Would the party of Reagan have abandoned its President’s hallowed faith in the brotherhood of men if it weren’t for embracing public paranoia fuelled by free trade and amplified by terrorism? If terrorism is a tool to exert influence on a rival’s psyche, then unfortunately ISIS is already winning. Terrorism only works when we are scared of the perpetrators enough to radically change our behaviors and political stances. For ISIS, Islamophobia and fear great enough to block helpless Syrians fleeing the terrorist group, equate to their mission accomplished. We cannot imagine that the mess we are in is the result of some sort of grand strategy by the Emni. However, we are witnessing devolution from the new world order; the EU has been hit hard and members of NATO have had to put up with many compromises, and the West is increasingly abandoning its multilateral commitments and liberal values.

Even if the Emni has only a marginal influence on the aforementioned historical events, we must understand the impact and role of this entity within ISIS. However, to reach this understanding we need to know what is the Emni? How did it come into being? Who is behind it? What kind of influence does it exert? Where does it operate? Why does it cultivate such a reputation of forcefulness? Approaching this topic we have both the need and the urgency to learn more. The first step to resolve a problem is to identify and gather as much information as possible about it. Realizing this mission would be insufficient if it relied only on published research and open-source information, it also incorporates a number of trusted on-the-ground local Syrian sources to gather intelligence information about the Emni and relies on previous ICSVE research.[2]

The Arabic Teacher

Delving deep into our investigation endeavouring to understand the Emni, a pattern in the puzzle pieces starts to emerge, the repeating name of Abu Luqman or Abu Luqman al-Soori. To even our bravest and most courageous sources, the name brought horror, dismay, and bitterness. It became clear that only way to learn about the operations of the Emni lay in our sources’ ability to collect information about Abu Luqman who was born as Ali Juma al-Shwakh in the Syrian town of al-Sahel, Raqqa governate in 1973. At thirty-four years of age, he is a father of five; three boys and two girls. Abu Luqman graduated in 2002 from the faculty of Arts and Humanities (Department of Arabic) from the University of Aleppo.

After graduating with a bachelor’s degree in Arabic literature, he started his mandatory military service in the Syrian army. As a first lieutenant in the Syrian Military Intelligence, Abu Luqman spent a part of his uniformed service in the city of Ras al-Ayn, al-Hasakah. During his time in Ras al-Ayn, he was an effective operative and was well liked by his superior. First lieutenant is the highest achievable rank for mandatory service recruits, suggesting that Abu Luqman managed to get the recognition of the permanent professionals at the Military Intelligence Directorate. That recognition took him to the headquarters of Military Intelligence at the Defence Ministry in Damascus. As a Sunni Syrian, a minority in Syrian intelligence, his Damascus assignment implies that he was highly trusted—for a Sunni.

After concluding his military service Abu Luqman returned to al-Sahel, Raqqa governate to teach Arabic in al-Sahel al-Garbi School from 2005 to 2010. During his time as an Arabic teacher, he used to frequent Iqra book store in the city of Raqqa where he was exposed to Salafi books, CDs of executions and their sharia justifications, speeches and audio books promoting militant jihad. In hindsight and in reconciliation with available data, we suspect Abu Luqman’s second half of uniformed service at the Military Intelligence Directorate headquarters may have pushed him towards the dark and extreme corners of the Sunni sect alongside political events occurring in the region. The Military Intelligence Directorate is largely made of Alawites, a sub-branch of Islam that is also al-Assad’s sect. Sunni Syrians are mostly excluded when it comes to permanent positions within the directorate. Abu Luqman was not a permanent professional but rather among the recruits serving their mandatory service. The general sentiment within the directorate is that Sunnis are not to be trusted or promoted to high ranks, something that may have weighted heavily on a Sunni who had managed to penetrate their ranks.

Meanwhile as of 2002, the Syrian regime permitted Iranian agents to preach in Raqqa governorate. One of the Iranian Islamic Revolution’s missions was to spread Shiites’ values and revolutionary ideals globally. In this same time frame the U.S. Coalition forces had invaded Iraq followed by Jordanian leader Abu Musab Zarqawi having entered the fray and setting of horrific sectarian violence there. Zarqawi named the Shia as al-Qaeda in Iraq’s main enemy and strongly encouraged all Sunnis to unite under the banner of militant jihad. This at a time when Syrian Sunnis were also feeling increasingly marginalized and targeted. It is suspected that the discrimination and lack of trust that Abu Luqman experienced during his time at Military Intelligence Directorate, anger over the U.S. invasion of Iraq along with the increasing sectarian tension between Shiites and Sunnis there, precipitated his finding refuge in an Islamist political movement that opposed the Syrian regime and claimed to unite Sunnis in the search for a just Islamic form of governance. Moreover, information obtained from trusted sources confirm that Abu Luqman idealized Saddam Hussein and had some positive views of al-Qaeda in Iraq.

For a marginalized Sunni Baathist (the Baath Party currently leads Syria and used to be Iraq’s leading party, although in Iraq—unlike Syria, the Iraqi Baathists were predominantly Sunni), al-Qaeda in Iraq appealed to him. One element would have been their common enemy i.e. Shiites as rivals and proxies of the Iranian-led anti-Sunni campaign which was becoming bloodier and increasingly barbaric in neighbouring Iraq. This occurring as Shiites were increasingly put into power in Iraq while prominent Sunni Baathists serving in the military and intelligence had been sent home without jobs or even pensions. Being a marginalized Sunni and a Baathist, Abu Luqman likely identified with al-Qaeda in Iraq given the role former Iraqi Baathists played in that organisation.

Abu Luqman’s affection to al-Qaeda in Iraq put him on the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate’s radar. In early months of 2010, Abu Luqman was arrested on charges of sedition. He was detained at the Sednaya military prison. On the surface he was just an Arabic teacher, a marginalized Sunni who was arrested in a wave of another political suppression campaign. However, information obtained from trusted sources suggests that Abu Luqman was already at that time at least an al-Qaeda sympathiser and perhaps already much more.

Sednaya-Jihad Connection

The Sednaya military prison, 30 kilometres north of Damascus, is known for torture and extrajudicial executions[3]. The facilities are used to detained political opposition, be it Islamists, Kurds, or Communists[4]. According to WikiLeaks, the American embassy in Damascus cabled the Central Intelligence Agency, among others, details confirming a massacre that took a place in Sednaya prison in 2008[5]. Contents of the leak suggest that most of the detainees at the facilities were Islamists and Kurds.

It is known that Bashar al-Assad feared the U.S. led coalition of Iraq and worried that he might be next on the list of dictators toppled by Western powers. As a result, Sunni insurgents and suicide bombers were allowed to launch through Syria. Haji Bakr, a former Saddam’s Iraqi intelligence official who is credited with providing the game plan for forming ISIS in Syria and later its launch into Iraq worked hand-in-hand with Assad’s intelligence during the U.S. led invasion of Iraq to launch these Sunni actors to fight the Americans.[6] Based on obtained leaks information[7], after the toppling of Saddam’s government the Syrian regime also offered Islamist detainees in Sednaya prison military training in Syria to join the Islamist insurgency fighting against American forces in Iraq. Moreover, the cable also showed that upon the return of these militant Islamists from their time in Iraq, some were sent by the Syrian regime to Lebanon, some remained at large, and others were rearrested and detained at the Sednaya prison. Starting in July 2008, a cadre of those re-incarcerated led two riots in the prison resulting in the deaths of approximately one hundred detainees, a number of military personnel, and unspecified numbers of injuries. By December 2008 the Syrian regime regained control of the facilities. The cited leak suggests that one justification for the Islamists’ success in holding hostages, getting their demands of food met, and retaining control over parts of the facilities was due to the training they received from the Syrian regime and the combat experience they had gained in Iraq.

As mentioned earlier, Abu Luqman was arrested and detained in the Sednaya prison in early 2010. In the course of our investigation we obtained evidence indicating that during the period of his incarceration, Abu Luqman became a very close friend of Fiwaz Muhammad al-Kurdi al-Hiju (a.k.a. Abu Ali al-Shari) and Ahmad al-Nasir (a.k.a. Abu Yousif). Sources reported that al-Hiju had fought against the American forces in Iraq sometime before 2008. He was born in 1956 and spent some time in Saudi Arabia before 2002. Al-Hiju was also a Salafist whose knowledge of sharia rules and justifications was highly respected among Islamists in the prison. It is suspected that al-Hiju tipped the scale in transforming Abu Luqman from a radical Islamist sympathizer into a violent jihadist.

In early stages of the Syrian uprising, Assad’s regime blamed the upheaval on foreign conspirators, the U.S. and its allies, and terrorists. That narrative was largely ridiculed by the media and watchdogs. The Syrian regime issued a number of amnesties releasing a large number of Islamists from the Sednaya prison perhaps in hope of their subsequent actions supporting Assad’s narrative of terrorists threatening the regime. Three of the most prominent prisoners released at that time went on to become the heads of three of the most powerful Islamist groups in Syria. Those Islamist leaders are: Hassan Abboud, the former leader of Ahrar al-Sham; Zahran Alloush, the former leader of Jaysh al-Islam; and Ahmad Aisa al-Shaykh, the former commander of Suqour al-Sham Brigade[8].

Our investigation shows that Abu Luqman and his friends, Fiwaz Muhammad al-Kurdi al-Hiju and Ahmad al-Nasir; all became key members of ISIS. Al-Hiju became the highest sharia judge during the early months of ISIS’ takeover of the city of Raqqa. As of late March 2017, Ahmad al-Nasir was the Emir (head) of ISIS’ death squads and Abu Luqman had become the Wali (general director) of the ISIS Emni (ISIS’s intelligence and security forces). To establish a better understating of the Emni, it is important to examine Abu Luqman’s activities after his release from prison and before he became its Wali, or general director.

Al-Nusra Front and the Conspiracy

A while after his release from Sednaya military prison, sometime after February 2012, Abu Luqman joined the ranks of al-Nusra Front (a.k.a. Jabhat al-Nusra, renamed now as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham), al-Qaeda’s affiliate in Syria. He operated as a low-rank fighter for the group in Tabqa in Raqqa governate, Syria. In March 2013, Abu Luqman appeared in Raqqa governorate emerging as a key player there for al-Nusra Front. During his rise in the ranks, he was in contact with Fiwaz Muhammad al-Kurdi al-Hiju (a.k.a. Abu Ali al-Shari), his friend from the Sednaya prison. As mentioned earlier, al-Hiju was one of the detainees trained by the Syrian regime to fight against the American forces in Iraq who was then rearrested and detained in the same prison after returning to Syria and who later rose to a leadership role in ISIS.

At the time Abu Luqman recontacted his friend, al-Hiju had become a key player in ISIS. A number of trusted sources reported that the two men held five meetings in al-Sahel, Raqqa. Through al-Hiju, Abu Luqman clandestinely met the leadership of ISIS in Raqqa during his time in al-Nusra. ISIS has shown itself adept at co-opting al-Nusra leadership into their ranks but not openly, instead sending them back to gather intelligence, assassinate key leaders and clear a path for overtaking the rival group in battles. Many defectors told the second author of such plots carried out by ISIS to overtake al-Nusra leadership.[9] Abu Luqman is reported to have clandestinely switched over to ISIS and that he proposed a plan through which he would eliminate Abu Saad al-Hatherami, the leading figure of al-Nusra Front in Raqqa, thereby helping ISIS to takeover their territory.

Abu Luqman’s uniformed service in Syrian Military Intelligence as a first lieutenant had arguably made him an effective undercover operative. He succeeded in providing evidence against al-Hatherami to the Nusra leadership, casting doubt on his superior loyalty to al-Nusra Front and causing al-Hatherami to be labelled an infidel and enemy of Islam. Abu Luqman proved his worth to ISIS’ leadership after executing al-Hatherami and succeeding him. Already as a leading figure of al-Nusra Front in Raqqa, Abu Luqman had gained the respect of violent jihadists in Raqqa. He alone had executed around 50 solders of al-Assad’s army in a public display of ruthlessness. That act of savagery alone made him the most feared jihadist in Raqqa.

Abu Luqman’s mercilessness, calculating, increasing popularity and rise in al-Nusra Front’s ranks did not deter him from pursuing the plan he proposed to ISIS’ leadership in Raqqa. In fact it helped him to rise in ISIS as well as he defected from al-Nusra while helping to destroy it from the inside. Abu Luqman, while still inside al-Nusra, but already working for ISIS effectively facilitated the desertion of around 630 foreign and local fighters from al-Nusra Front, persuading them to join ISIS when his defection and switch to ISIS became publically known, which raised the number of ISIS fighters to 2,300 in Raqqa city. That in turn weakened al-Nusra Front significantly. Two weeks after his public desertion from al-Nusra Front, Abu Luqman emerged as a key player in ISIS’s ranks.

The Rise of the Emni’s “Father”

As already discovered, the ISIS plans to take over villages, set up intelligence cells and to conquer from within was conceived by Saddam’s former intelligence operative, Haji Bakr whose files were discovered in Syria after his death and reported by Christopher Reuter of der Spiegel[10]. Haji Bakr conceived the blueprint to set up the ISIS Emni, but now following Haji Bakr’s death, Abu Luqman was rising to become an increasingly prominent member of ISIS as the Emni became a formalized entity within the now declared Islamic State. Two events were reported to be behind his rise. First, he managed to use his tribal connections to recruit a significant number of fighters. Belonging to the Syrian al-Ajeel tribe, he used the help of Ibrahim al-Hindi, a key tribal figure, to recruit members of al-Ajeel. Secondly, he led a large group of hundreds of hardened fighters that had deserted al-Nusra Front to operate for ISIS. Under his leadership, that group managed to defeat a number of groups that were affiliated with the Free Syrian Army (FSA) –one of ISIS’s most hated enemies.

In April 2013, Abu Luqman and his fighters executed 1,273 captured fighters from groups affiliated with the FSA, making a public display of their remains in the yard of the Public Hospital in Raqqa. Moreover, he gave the remaining FSA’s affiliates an ultimatum: “Either join ISIS or suffer the same fate.” The remains of the executed FSA’s affiliates were buried in two locations; one in Salhabia Charqui, Raqqa governorate, and the other to the south of the main irrigation canal. A week after that ultimatum, around 5,750 new recruits joined the ranks of ISIS. A significant portion of these new recruits was from his tribe and former FSA affiliates. A middleman was entrusted by Abu Luqman to oversee the recruitment and vetting of former FSA affiliates to ensure their loyalty. Assigned because of his tribal connections and friendship with Abu Luqman, this middleman was Hwaydi al-Shlash from al-Mishlab, Raqqa governorate.

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Photos of Abu Luqman (al-Shwakh) with his brother and of al-Shami

During the first few months of ISIS’ takeover of Raqqa, (after April 2013) Abu Luqman became an increasingly prominent member and key operative for ISIS. He was reported to oversee and conduct the public executions and following display of the corpses of foreign nationals (fighters and civilians), journalists (local only), and fighters from rival groups (e.g., Ahrar al-Sham, al-Nusra Front, FSA’s affiliates). At first, he used the administrative building at Tabqa Dam as an operations base. It was from this base that he established a key detention facility, ran the ISIS Emni (ISIS’ security and intelligence forces), Nukta 11 (Point 11) death squads, Chechen squads (i.e. the hardened fighters coming from the Caucases Emirate), Islamic police (i.e. the hisbah), military police, and the special operations office[11].

Within a year of joining the ranks of ISIS, Abu Luqman became Raqqa’s Wali or governor. Notably, ISIS also set up sharia and training camps for its new recruits near the Tabqa prison making it possible that beheadings of prisoners could be arranged for new recruits to carry out at the end of their sharia training as they gave their bayats to ISIS.[12]

It is remarkable that Abu Luqman has chosen to leave the position of the Wali a number of times. It is reported that he currently spends most of his time with the organization as the leading figure of the Emni in Syria and a leader of infiltration squads in the battlefield. The infiltration squads (a.k.a. Anghmasiiyn) are made of armed units that penetrate rival forces. They do so by advancing undetected or stay behind to cause maximum damage, as major forces retreat. Moreover, Abu Luqman was very close to Abu Muhammad al-Adnani (born as Taha Subhi Falaha). Al-Adnani was the official spokesperson and a senior leader of ISIS, acting as the second in charge to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. He was also in charge of the ISIS Emni including planning and executing operations outside of ISIS territory Abu Luqman and al-Adnani were seen together a number of times in the city of Raqqa. Additionally, before U.S. forces killed al-Adnani in the city of al-Bab, (near Aleppo) Syria in August of 2016, Abu Luqman was fighting alongside him. As of late August 2016, Abu Luqman was seriously injured around al-Bab city, sustaining injuries to his back. And in early September 2016 he was brought to the outskirts of Raqqa to obtain medical attention.

Taken altogether, in reconciliation with information obtained from trusted sources, a number of factors that facilitated Abu Luqman’s radicalization and rise in ISIS’ ranks were thoroughly demonstrated. His story, at certain level, resembles the one of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Both were educated, spent time in detention in the company of violent jihadists, and were part of al-Qaeda affiliated groups in some capacity before joining ISIS and turning against al-Qaeda. This section mentions that Abu Luqman is one of the key architects of the ISIS’ security/intelligence forces or the Emni. It is noteworthy that the Emni’s operations and structure has evolved over the years following its inception. Like Saddam’s former intelligence officer, Haji Bakr before him, Abu Luqman’s years of uniformed service in Syrian military intelligence allowed him to put his same experience of tactics employed by the Syrian regime into practice.

The Current Organizational Hierarchy of The Emni

The organizational structure of the Emni has been deduced from collected intelligence. As shown in the following figure, the Emir or General Director reports to the Caliphate House Office. The Emni encompasses two committees; one operates from Syria and the other from Iraq. Each committee is made up of six members, including the Emir or director of the committee. Information obtained indicates that the Emir of the Emni in each country maintains influence over death squads, Chechen squads, Islamic police or the hisbah, military police, and the special operations office. The aforementioned squads, both police units, and the special operations office also operate independently of the Emni. However, the later maintain a supervisory role over them. The intelligence also uncovered that orders, as usual for ISIS, flow top to bottom while operation reports go in the opposite direction.

It is unclear whether the key architect of the Emni as it now stands, Abu Luqman, had this grand scheme in mind when he established the forces. Given Haji Bakr’s similar structure that he was putting in place before Abu Luqman came to power it appears it was their mutual grand design, one building on the foundation left by the other[13]. That said, the structure of the Emni provides its Emir or general director with the ability to influence critical operations and departments. To that effect, presenting the organizational hierarchy at this stage is the appropriate point of departure before delving into the complex relationships and operations associated with the Emni.

Making of a Wali

As of late September 2016, following the assassination of al Adnani, Abu Luqman stepped up to becoming the Emir (director) of the Emni in Syria. At that point Abu Luqman seemed unstoppable. He managed to gain even more power and influence. In just two weeks he was promoted to lead and oversee the militant operations of foreign fighters in ISIS-controlled territories in Syria. His expertise and connections allowed him to become the direct commander of ISIS fighters (foreign and local) in Raqqa governorate. As the Emir of the Emni in Syria, one of his first actions was to lead a successful operation to apprehend Sadam al-Jammel, the Wali (governor) of Raqqa and his accomplices who tried to desert from ISIS and escape into Turkey.

As of late October 2016, Abu Luqman ordered the release of Abdul Rahman al-Faisal form a detention center belonging to the Emni. Al-Faisal had been sentenced to death by the general sharia judge for reasons we were unable to discover. This release escalated an existing feud between Abu Luqman and his Iraqi counterpart, Abu Anas al-Iraqi. Al-Iraqi was the Emir (director) of ISIS security forces in Iraq and was, in part, behind the arrest of al-Faisal. Abu Luqman totally rehabilitated al-Faisal, making him his assistant.

Intrigues occur everywhere and ISIS is no exception. According to chatter that was difficult to verify by sources with direct contact with ISIS, Abu Luqman was detained briefly due to ordering the release of al-Faisal. Moreover, it was reported that it was Abu Anas al-Iraqi who ordered Abu Luqman’s arrest. However, according to these reports, Abu Luqman was released by his loyalists in the Emni. By the end of October 2016, Abu Luqman was promoted to the Wali (governor) position of Raqqa governate He also became in charge of the Emni’s committee in Syria. So far, he has been the only Wali who also oversees the operation of the ISIS Emni. It is noteworthy that he had left that position of Wali a number of times before this promotion, seeming to prefer the battlefield.

The Wali and Bureaucrats

As the Wali of Raqqa, Abu Luqman has two deputies. First, the head of his executive office is an Iraqi national from Rawi, Iraq known as Maktab Tanfithy, though his real name is Usama al-Abdul al-Gani (a.k.a. Abu Haritha Rawi). Al-Gani is in charge of overseeing the operations of directors from departments that fall under the control of the Wali (e.g. public services, energy, communication, finance, etc.). He delivers orders from the Wali to directorates in Raqqa governorate, oversees the implementation of such orders, and assists in nominating potential directors of these sectors (a.k.a. Emirs). Moreover, the Emir of the directorate of administrative affairs, Abu Muhammad al-Magribi, reports to al-Gani. The directorate of administrative affairs oversees the operations of administrative departments within the directorates falling under the control of the Wali.

Second, the Wali’s security adviser is a Syrian national from Idlib Governorate. He is known as Abu Muhammad Tarmini. Originally from Mount Zāwiya, Idlib, less is known about Tarmini compared to Abu Luqman’s other deputy. What is known was that he used to lead ISIS operatives in al-Dana town in Idlib. He then joined the fight in Idlib and moved to Raqqa after Abu Luqman was promoted to the Wali of the city. The two deputies operated from the same building where the Wali’s office is located.

In early November 2016, Abu Luqman promoted two loyal operatives to head the directorates of fighters and of agriculture. Moreover, as the Wali of the city he was actively engaged in recruiting new fighters. Information obtained from trusted sources show that Abu Luqman managed to recruit around 730 fighters from his tribe at this time. The lion’s share of these recruits was less than 18-years-of-age and a significant portion of their recruitment was not voluntarily. The measures that he took as Wali to increase taxes and these forced recruitments had, arguably, made him unpopular in Raqqa governorate.

By late November 2016, Abu Luqman was injured for the second time. His injuries, however, were not life threatening. After incurring these injuries he went into hiding. Trusted sources reported that, as of late December 2016, Abu Luqman was staying with his family in a military compound in Tabqa, Raqqa governorate. However, he frequently visited the city of Raqqa to hold meetings with the leadership of the Emni. During those visits he was heavily guarded. The aforementioned meetings took place in his Wali office.

During his time in Tabqa from late December 2016 to mid-January 2017, Abu Luqman managed to get an exemption from having to obtain permission to carry out executions from ISIS’s general sharia judge. For the period between December 2016 and early January 2017, a period in which Abu Luqman operated from the administrative facilities at Tabqa Dam, the executions numbered 3 per day. As described in a previous report[14], the Emni managed a detention center in the administrative facilities of the dam. The detainees were those accused of threating the security of ISIS. To that end, it is noteworthy that the aforementioned number of executions per day represented a significant rise from earlier months. In addition to those executed were others charged with threatening the security of ISIS.

ISIS’ Chief Spooks in Syria

In late January 2017, Abu Luqman returned to the city of Raqqa and started operating from the Wali office working as the Wali (governor) of Raqqa. Abu Luqman was also the highest ranked member of the Emni in Raqqa. It is important to note that it is uncommon for the Wali to retain influence over members of the Emni. It is within the power of the Emir (director) of the Emni and his deputies to remove a Wali of a city. However, having been the chief architect of the Emni as it is now formulated and given his previous position as the Emir (director) of the Emni in Syria certainly made have made him more powerful than most Walis. His particular background implies that he cannot be removed from the position of the Wali by the Emni operating in Syria.

In late January 2017 Abu Luqman operated from the center of Raqqa city. His office faced Naem Roundabout, a famous spot in the city where public executions, including brutal beheadings, frequently take place. He was in the office from 10 am to 4 pm. As a display of power he patrolled the city every Friday. Abu Luqman resided with his wife and five children in a house with an exterior of yellow marble. The house used to belong to a former figure in the Baath party. Pedestrians and those driving were not allowed to enter the street where Abu Luqman resided unless they lived there and there was a checkpoint at the entrance of the street. Before he moved into that house, the Coalition forces hit a gas station in its immediate vicinity. To go to work, Abu Luqman drove in a grey van with a motorcade of two other cars.

During that time, Muhammad al-Abdullah (a.k.a. Abu Atika, Haj Idris), a lanky man from Tunis, became the Emir (Director) of the Emni in Syria. As the Emir of the Emni he reported to Abu Luqman, the Wali of Raqqa and director of the Emni’s committee in Syria. Al-Abdullah was also the sharia judge of the Emni and a member of its committee in Syria. That judgeship meant that he received details on potential attacks, both in ISIS-held territories and abroad. In addition, it also made him a source of theological and ideological justification for such attacks.

Information obtained from trusted sources uncovered a number of key operatives who reported to Muhammad al-Abdullah, the Emir of the Emni in Syria, and Abu Luqman, the Wali of Raqqa and director of the Emni’s committee in Syria. Our investigation showed that the operatives we learned about are members of the Emni’s committee in Syria. Their roles and details are as follow:

Abdul Rahman al-Sahu (a.k.a. Abu Adam), a Syrian man, is reported to be in charge of infiltration and intelligence operations conducted by the Emni. The infiltration squads are units that penetrate rival forces. They do so by advancing undetected or stay behind to cause maximum damage, as major forces retreat. Emni has used more sophisticated infiltration tactics like activating sleeper cells or ordering their spies to carry attacks within rivals’ territories. Al-Sahu was also a sharia judge within the forces. He is in charge of the office of the Emni in the town of Maadan, Raqqa governorate.

A Syrian man by the first name Abdul Aziz (a.k.a. Abu Al-Zahraa and commonly known as al-Khal) is one of those in charge of ISIS armaments in Syria. He operated from a weapons arsenal in the immediate vicinity of the General Organization for Drinking Water and Sanitation.

A Syrian man by the alias Abu Muhammad al-Jazrawi was reported to be in charge of death squad raids conducted by the Emni.

An Iraqi man by the alias Abu Hasan al-Iraqi was reported to oversee the medical care and protection of key figures. He operated from the Modern Medicine Hospital, Raqqa. A civilian population is always present in the hospital.

Mosul, Sirte, and Raqqa

Based on details obtained from trusted sources, as of early March 2017, Abu Luqman was in Mosul, Iraq. He was promoted from his position as the Wali of Raqqa to the general director or Wali of the Emni in Syria and Iraq, the highest rank within the Emni. That gave him the power to oversee the operations of the two committees of ISIS security forces. As such, he would report to the Caliphate House Office. Moreover, from Mosul, Abu Luqman managed to promote his assistant, Abdul Rahman al-Faisal (a.k.a. Abu Faisal), to both the position of Wali of Raqqa and as the head of the committees of ISIS security forces in Syria.

By mid-March 2017, Abu Luqman emerged, according to our sources, in Sirte, Libya. It is unclear whether he had travelled to Syria before appearing in Libya or travelled there directly from Mosul, Iraq. Forces loyal to Abu Anas al-Iraqi, the leader of the Emni’s committee in Iraq, arrested Abu Luqman soon after he arrived in Sirte. The tensions between Abu Luqman and al-Iraqi were mentioned earlier. The feud had escalated in the past when Abu Luqman released Abdul Rahman al-Faisal who had previously been detained by al-Iraqi’s forces. The drama between the two operatives, more on al-Iraqi’s side, might have reach its tipping point after Abu Luqman became the highest ranked member of the Emni for both Iraq and Syria and al-Faisal, who al-Iraqi hated, was promoted to be al-Iraqi’s counterpart in Syria. However, sometime around the 20th of March 2017, Abu Luqman managed to communicate with the Caliphate House Office, which then ordered his release.

As of early April 2017, Abu Luqman arrived back in Raqqa. Information obtained from trusted sources indicates that he and his brother-in-law had travelled to the cities of Mosul and Sirte before that. It was clear that Abu Luqman was on a mission. However, the nature and objectives of such a mission remain unclear. Upon his arrival in Raqqa, Abu Luqman summoned Abu Nasir al-Shami an Iraqi national who is in charge of ISIS’s forces in Tabqa. It appears that they had a meeting regarding the developments around the Tabqa dam.

To that effect, as the Wali of the Emni, Abu Luqman might have travelled to Sirte to establish another Emni’s committee in Libya. ISIS currently seems to be on the defeat in Syria and Iraq and is assessing its next moves. Moreover, the terror group has a history of carrying out attacks in Europe when pressure on their strongholds mounts. If Abu Luqman was on a mission to expand the presence and operations of the Emni in Libya, such a move likely also has significant national security implications for European countries. In other words, having an operations base for the Emni in Libya is especially dangerous given the smuggling routes from Libya, and North Africa in general; to Europe and the access it could provide ISIS in plotting and conducting terrorist attacks in European cities. Additionally, such a move would also be expected to strengthen ISIS in North Africa. As already radicalized North Africans reside in Europe, particularly Belgium, Netherlands and France, this may also bode badly for Europe.

Furthermore, being the highest ranked member of the Emni, Abu Luqman is arguably the most significant target for American forces in Syria. As demonstrated earlier, Abu Luqman groomed his assistant and most loyal operative, al-Faisal, to be the director of the Emni’s committee in Syria and the Wali of Raqqa city. Having such influence arguably makes Abu Luqman the most prominent member of ISIS-held territories. He is also expected to have access to potential terrorist attack plots in the West.

The Emni’s Intra-Departmental Influence

As displayed in the organizational hierarchy, the Emni maintains influence in Syria and Iraq on: death squads, Chechen squads, Islamic police (the hisbah), military police, and the Special Operations Office. Details obtained from trusted sources uncovered some aspects of the operation and leadership of the aforementioned departments. However, we were unable to gather information on the Special Operations Office.

Death Squads are unique in the sense that they don’t need to get the permission of the sharia judge to conduct operations, carry out arrests, or eliminate targets that the Emni decides upon, be it enemy fighters, civilians, or other ISIS members. Up to now the whereabouts of their bases were unknown. In mid-March 2017, one of their bases was uncovered. The base was located at the administrative building at the Tabqa Dam11. The squads operate under the full control of the Emni. Its current leadership was put into place and promoted by Abu Luqman and thus likely totally loyal to him. Ahmad al-Nasir is the Emir (Director) of the death squads. He was promoted to that position in December 2016. Like Abu Luqman he was born in the 70’s and graduated from the faculty of Arts and Humanities (Arabic Department), University of Aleppo, and was also detained in Sednaya military prison. Al-Nasir was also an Arabic teacher. Al-Nasir was a major player who was intrusted with very critical positions, one, which was the Emir of the Syrian Emni sometime around May 2015. Al-Nasir has green eyes; but he is always masked when in public.

The Military Police is led by Abdul al-Kafi al-Shmari (a.k.a., Abu Hajir), a Saudi national from the city of Tabuk. As the Emir of the military police, he oversees the enforcement of sharia laws related to jihad (e.g. paying jihad-based taxes, arresting ISIS members who don’t have legitimate reasons to abstain from fighting jihad) and military cases (e.g. cases against fighters). He had a feud with operatives from the Emni. However, he obeyed and reported to the Emir of the Emni to resolve this feud. Al-Shmari is thirty years old. He has a degree in architectural engineering and used to work in real estate in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

The Islamic Police or hisbah is led by Muhammad al-Bazi, a Syrian national who was born in 1972. Before becoming the Emir of the Islamic police, he was the Emir of al-Jarnia, Raqqa and the Emir of Tishrin Dam. As the head of the Islamic police he is associated with torture and death. It was reported that he managed to lure two men who had been on the run by detaining their wives and children. The two women and children were put in small cages. The display was shown to the tribal leaders of the two men, who then surrendered themselves to the Islamic police so that their families would be freed. The men were accused of conspiring against ISIS and executed by operatives of the Islamic police. It is noteworthy that al-Bazi moved to Raqqa after Kurdish forces took control of the town of al-Jarnia. He was selected by Abu Luqman to lead the Islamic force after the Emni executed his predecessor. Clearly crossing the Emni can have disastrous results.

Chechen Squads are led by Abu Omar al-Shishani. His kunya implies that he is Chechen. Al-Shishani is the Emir of al-Muhajirin (immigrants/foreign fighters) Directorate. This man with three silver teeth is in his 50s. Al-Shishani oversees social, economic, and legal affairs that relate to foreign members of ISIS who come from over 80 countries worldwide. Under his leadership, the directorate gained a reputation of spying on foreign members who may have been sent from their home countries to infiltrate and spy on ISIS. Upon their arrival new members are sequestered temporarily and hand over their passports, phones and fill out paperwork about their previous military training and desires for serving ISIS. During this time period the Emni conducts investigations on all new foreign fighters and immigrants to ISIS, checking on the references they provide, searching their phones which are turned over upon joining, downloading their contacts and trying to ascertain that they are who they say they are.[15] Al-Shishani constantly reports to the Emni to handle the arrest of suspected members.

The Emni gave the Directorate of Immigrants the permission to be the sole trader of cars in Raqqa. The money generated from the trade goes to the directorate budget which is responsible, we have learned, for arranging housing for foreign fighters, paying widows pensions, paying salaries of foreign fighters, etc. Also, under the supervision of the Emni, al-Shishani was allowed to conduct business in Raqqa to generate more income for the Directorate of Immigrants. His business activities include real estate, agriculture, and hospitality. As of March 2017, Al-Shishani had generated just above USD 10 million. Al-Shishani managed an operation through which estates and businesses of those departing the city get redistributed to agents of the Directorate of Immigrants. Al-Shishani had been in charge of the directorate since the 9th of December 2015. The directorate reportedly has two clandestine offices outside ISIS-held territories; one in Turkey and the other in Germany. These offices report to al-Shishani. Reports from the aforementioned offices are submitted to the leadership of the Emni. The Chechen squads are Caucases Emirates fighting forces operating under the leadership of al-Shishani.

Conclusion

The involvement of the ISIS Emni in both inspiring and actually directing terrorist attacks and assassinations, both in neighbouring countries to Syria and Iraq, and in Europe and beyond, makes its operations and leadership of special interest to policymakers worldwide. Through terrorizing civilian populations, it has made itself instrumental to spreading ISIS’ message of fear and also helped divide democratic societies against their Muslim populations. This sowing of suspicions and hatred that plays right into ISIS’s recruiting methods and ideology that intones that Muslims are reviled and being attacked by the West. The Emni’s shrewd terrorist plotting and ability to portray the after-effects of their attacks in slick videos has also helped the terrorist organisation to preach its doomsday ideology, portray itself as still strong even while losing its territory and whip up support for further recruitment. Clearly, its activities have resulted in Islamophobia and anti-refugee sentiments—to the sorrow of many fleeing ISIS’s brutality, reinforcing ISIS’ narrative among radical and marginalized Muslims in the West. The Emni’s far-reaching influence reveals an immense need to understand the entity. Using our limited resources and contacts on the ground, the operations and leadership of the Emni were investigated as deeply as we were able to penetrate. Reporting on information obtained from trusted sources in ISIS-held territories and neighbouring countries, the organizational structure of the Emni is demonstrated here including biographical details of its leadership. However, elements of the hierarchy in Iraq require more information. That said, the details discussed in earlier sections allow a clearer understanding of the leadership and operations of the Emni in Syria.

Moreover, the obtained details enable an inference of the stages of one of the Emni’s chief architect’s radicalization, which is similar for many of the Syrian ISIS leaders. As shown in this report, his prior grievances as a marginalized Sunni during Assad’s regime while watching the Coalition invasion of Iraq and the rise of al-Qaeda in Iraq and the sectarian violence that followed, coupled with his intelligence experience, effectiveness in the battlefield, callous nature, Machiavellianism, and recruiting skills have facilitated his rise to the highest rank in the ISIS Emni. The network of Islamists who have spent time fighting alongside the insurgency in Iraq and those loyal to him have made Abu Luqman, the Emni’s father, one of the most popular and feared operatives.

Furthermore, the Emni’s powers within ISIS allow its leadership to micromanage and exert influence on the various directorates that operate in its strongholds. The Emni in Syria has started to promote its operatives to govern cities and towns while having permanent seats in the committee. That in turn provides the Emni with enough power to seize control of all major functions within its territories in Syria. It is unclear whether the same trend applies in Iraq. It is noteworthy that with this level of influence the Emni should not be viewed only as intelligence forces. To that end, the tension between the Emni and other entities within ISIS has been steadily increasing but it’s likely that with its ruthless power it will continue to dominate, at least in Syria.

This report also documents the movement of the Emni’s leadership between Raqqa, Mosul, and Sirte. Notwithstanding Sirte’s drama, the Emni seems to be expanding into North Africa. Having access to the smuggling route between Libya and Europe could result in devastating events in Europe, although the Emni has also been successful directing attacks within Europe without it. The Emni presence in Sirte will likely also complicate the Libyan government’s operations against ISIS. They might also direct attacks to capture oil and gas fields in Libya. That might trigger illegal oil and gas trade across North Africa and increase the resources ISIS has for further attacks and payments to its cadres. The Emni’s expansion into Libya also presents a nightmare to neighbouring countries. The potential expansion from Libya to Mali, through Niger or Algeria, has highly significant military implications.

Recent activities of the Emni suggest that the entity is also overseeing ISIS operations in battling American forces and their Syrian allies. Recently obtained information indicate the instalment of IEDs and presence of BM 21 Grad multiple Launch Rocket Systems in the north of al-Mansoura, Raqqa. The operation of the aforementioned capabilities is believed to be handled by forces within the Emni. The leadership of the Emni is recently more present in the city of Raqqa. To that effect, the entity might be plotting retaliatory attacks around Tabqa against the American forces and their Syrian Allies.

Clearly it is to the West’s advantage to understand and then destroy the ISIS Emni, which as this report makes clear, grew out of expertise and knowledge gained from operatives serving under Saddam Hussein’s and Bashar al- Assad’s intelligence operations who have taken that knowledge and expertise and turned it into building a terrorist “state” and an intelligence operation which has shown itself to be a formidable opponent to the West.

Reference for this article: Asaad H. Almohammad, Speckhard, Anne (April 12, 2017) ReportsThe ISIS Emni: It’s Organizational Structure, Current Leadership and Clues to its Inner Workings in Syria & Iraq. ICSVE Research Report.

References:

[1] Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2017). The ISIS Emni: The Origins and Inner Workings of ISIS’s Intelligence Apparatus. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/573

[2] Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2017). The ISIS Emni: The Origins and Inner Workings of ISIS’s Intelligence Apparatus. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/573

[3] Amnesty International, “Syria: Human Slaughterhouse: Mass Hangings and Extermination at Saydnaya Prison, Syria,” Amnesty International Ltd, London, UK, 2017.

[4] Amnesty International, “About Saydnaya,” 2017. [Online]. Available: https://saydnaya.amnesty.org/en/saydnaya.html. [Accessed 2017].

[5] WikiLeaks, “Public Library of US Diplomacy,” [Online]. Available: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/08DAMASCUS482_a.html. [Accessed 2017].

[6] Reuter, C. (April 18, 2015). The terror strategist: Secret files reveal the structure of Islamic State. Speigel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/islamic-state-files-show-structure-of-islamist-terror-group-a-1029274.html; Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2017). The ISIS Emni: The Origins and Inner Workings of ISIS’s Intelligence Apparatus. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/573

[7] WikiLeaks, “Public Library of US Diplomacy,” [Online]. Available: https://wikileaks.org/plusd/cables/10DAMASCUS158_a.html. [Accessed 2017].

[8] Joshua Landis, “Syria’s Top Five Insurgent Leaders,” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.joshualandis.com/blog/biggest-powerful-militia-leaders-syria/. [Accessed 2017]

[9] Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2016). ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate: Advances Press, LLC.; Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (December 2015). Eyewitness accounts from recent defectors from Islamic State: Why they joined, what they saw, why they quit. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6), 95-118. Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/475

[10] Reuter, C. (April 18, 2015). The terror strategist: Secret files reveal the structure of Islamic State. Speigel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/islamic-state-files-show-structure-of-islamist-terror-group-a-1029274.html

[11] Almohammad, Asaad & Speckhard, Anne (March 29, 2017) Why Taking the Tabqa Dam is Important in the Fight against ISIS and Retaking of Raqqa. ICSVE Brief Reports http://www.icsve.org/brief-reports/why-taking-the-tabqa-dam-is-important-in-the-fight-against-isis-and-retaking-of-raqqa/

[12] Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2016). ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate: Advances Press, LLC.; Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (December 2015). Eyewitness accounts from recent defectors from Islamic State: Why they joined, what they saw, why they quit. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6), 95-118. Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/475

[13] Reuter, C. (April 18, 2015). The terror strategist: Secret files reveal the structure of Islamic State. Speigel Online. Retrieved from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/islamic-state-files-show-structure-of-islamist-terror-group-a-1029274.html; Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2017). The ISIS Emni: The Origins and Inner Workings of ISIS’s Intelligence Apparatus. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/573m

[14] Almohammad, Asaad & Speckhard, Anne (March 29, 2017) Why Taking the Tabqa Dam is Important in the Fight against ISIS and Retaking of Raqqa. ICSVE Brief Reports http://www.icsve.org/brief-reports/why-taking-the-tabqa-dam-is-important-in-the-fight-against-isis-and-retaking-of-raqqa/

[15] Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2017). The ISIS Emni: The Origins and Inner Workings of ISIS’s Intelligence Apparatus. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(1). Retrieved from Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (2016). ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate: Advances Press, LLC.; Speckhard, A., & Yayla, A. S. (December 2015). Eyewitness accounts from recent defectors from Islamic State: Why they joined, what they saw, why they quit. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6), 95-118. Retrieved from http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/573m;

Anne Speckhard, Ph.D., is an adjunct associate professor of psychiatry at Georgetown University School of Medicine and Director of the International Center for the Study of Violent Extremism (ICSVE). She has interviewed over 500 terrorists, their family members and supporters in various parts of the world including Gaza, the West Bank, Chechnya, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, the Balkans, the former Soviet Union and many countries in Europe. She is the author of several books, including Talking to Terrorists and ISIS Defectors: Inside Stories of the Terrorist Caliphate. Follow @AnneSpeckhard

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Intelligence

China disrupted Facebook around the world for political and intelligence reasons?

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First: The fact that the Chinese child “Wang Zhengyang”, whose picture is circulated globally, and who now lives in the United States of America and not in China

Second: The accusations of Facebook founder “Mark Zuckerberg” against China, and the Chinese defense of deliberately waging a technological war and cyber hacking against the work of American technology companies

Third: Reasonable Chinese and international accusations that Facebook deliberately disrupted its network, coupled with evidence and proof

Fourth: Analyzing the aspects of Chinese benefits and the Chinese political and ethical employment for the disruption of the American “Facebook” network around the world, internally, externally and ideologically

Fifth: The attitude of the Chinese themselves towards the ban by the Chinese authorities and the leaders of the Communist Party of China of the “Facebook” website in their country, according to the Chinese Constitution

Sixth: The relationship between (the crisis of disrupting Facebook and restoring China’s technological prestige and position) between its citizens and the world, and promoting the theory of “the superiority of Chinese technological applications over their American counterparts”

Facebook and its CEO well-known “Mark Zuckerberg” have faced many crises in recent years, which led to his summoning to appear before a “hearing committee in the US Congress”, especially with the rumors of hacking and selling the privacy and data of tens of millions of users of the “Facebook” network and its other applications around the world.  Some leaks indicated that “Cambridge Analytica Company” has obtained (the data of more than 50 million users’ accounts on the Facebook social networking site without their knowledge, after concluding a secret deal with the same company for commercial and advertising reasons), which violates the privacy of users.  It leads to a violation of their human rights if their data is used inappropriately.

We find that the crisis of disrupting the “Facebook” network and its American applications for several hours, has coincided with many “accusations and conspiracy theories associated with it”, such as:

that the disruption was deliberate, as the global giant “Facebook” tried to erase some evidence, proofs and evidence that condemns the company in one way or another, especially with the (summoning of the US Senate to Mrs.Francis Haugen”, who previously worked in the products department in  the location headquarter company of the “Facebook” in 2019, but it submitted its resignation after noticing illegal actions and activities carried out by Facebook and its officials, in order to hear its testimony regarding the “unlawful actions of Facebook”, endangering the interests of the United States of America itself, and condoning the  Dangerous toys for children may prompt suicide in order to achieve “material gains” for the company, regardless of any other considerations.

On the other hand, analyzes have begun regarding the Chinese conspiracy theory against “Facebook” and its CEO “Mark Zuckerberg”, in a Chinese attempt to embarrass the United States of America internationally due to the failure of its democratic digital technology system that it is trying to promote around the world, and to confirm the success of “Chinese alternative networking services and applications to its American counterpart” in avoiding these American technological errors, especially after “Downdetector” spotted it.

Notifying that “Down Detector”,  its main task is to track (website crashes), and it has received tens of thousands of reports of crashes on (Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp, Messenger) platforms.  It was not immediately clear what caused the malfunction that affected the three platforms.                

  Despite the growing number of theories and comments about China’s involvement in “Facebook hacking and penetrating”, Facebook itself has denied any allegations of being hacked or any evidence that users’ data has been hacked, explaining the reason for the malfunction.  All of its services and applications, including: (Instagram and WhatsApp), amid the growth of many (conspiracy theories) that have spread around the world, and the growing intensity of rumors circulating, including a Chinese child “hacker” penetrating the (Facebook) network alone and disabling users’ data.

  Because of this, Facebook’s Vice President of Infrastructure “Santosh Janardan” issued a company statement, saying:

 “Our engineering teams learned that changes to the settings on the main routers that coordinate traffic between data centers caused problems that disrupted this communication”

    Santosh Janardan, as the (Vice President of Facebook Infrastructure Company), denied the responsibility of China or any other parties or even hacking operations behind this malfunction, explaining in a public statement, in which he assured the world and users, that:

 “We want to make it clear that there was no malicious activity behind this malfunction, and its main cause was a wrong change of settings on our part, and we also have no evidence that user data was compromised as a result of this malfunction”

Hence, we note the “increasing international criticism of Facebook”, and its ability to avoid and solve those problems that caused (imbalance in the financial markets, stock exchanges and global markets). Accordingly, and to try to understand the whole picture, the Egyptian researcher will try to raise all the problems related to the company “Facebook”, and to respond in practice to the reasons for accusing China in the first place of hacking the network, as follows:

First: The fact that the Chinese child, “Wang Zhengyang”, whose picture is circulated globally, and who now lives in the United States of America and not in China

The Egyptian researcher followed up on the global uproar that aroused when a Chinese child “hacker” penetrated the Facebook site, and caused this global malfunction of Facebook’s search engines and disrupted the activities of the world, but when the Egyptian researcher was searching on the famous Chinese search engine “Baidu” as “Chinese alternative to the global site of Google”, they are constantly considering that “Baidu is a Google site alternative in China”.

   We will find a definition of the true identity and personality of the child, completely different from what was circulated globally, according to the following reasons:

Where the “Chinese Baidu website” indicated the identity of the child appearing in the globally circulated image, as a picture of the globally known Chinese hacke “Wang Zhengyang”, who now actually lives in the United States of America to complete his studies and is not in China at all.

The interesting thing for analysis is what the famous Chinese website “Baidu” mentioned that the Chinese child whose image is being circulated globally is called (Wang Zhengyang), and he is (born in 2001), meaning that he is a young man and not a child as various sites around the world claimed, and “his age is now aout 20 years old”, and the most amazing thing for me personally, is that “he is recentely resides in the United States of America and not in China”, whereas (Wang Zhengyang) traveled to study in the United States of America to continue studying his specialization in (computer, programming and information systems).

He also noted the “Chinese Baidu website”, praising the genius of “Wang Zhengyang”, and that he was one of the students in a school in the Beijing Municipal Public Security Bureau and the Education Committee for the implementation of (Enlightenment Project for Network Security).

 We can as well find that the actual appearance of the Chinese child (Wang Zhengyang) for the first time globally at the (Chinese Internet Security Conference), in 2014, and that was the first appearance of the Chinese genius child (Wang Zhengyang), who was only 13 years old,  as the youngest hacker across mainland China.

When the Chinese child (Wang Zhengyang) was accused at the time of hacking his school’s website and endangering the privacy of its files and students’ data, the child (Wang Zhengyang) defended those allegations against him himself, accusing him of hacking his school’s website, according to his claim or defense at the time, that:

   “He was only meant to help fix his school’s data website to help her and not intentionally harm her”

As the Chinese child (Wang Zhengyang) explained at the time, that:

 “The school website he hacked was not for middle school students, but for high school students in the same educational institution”

Perhaps what stopped me analytically is what the child (Wang Zhengyang) confirmed at the time and his emphasis, on:

   “He would rather be seen as an ethical computer hacker, and would not use technology to do illegal things”

    Hence, the whole matter was orchestrated as previously referred to as a global rumor, it was not determined who (the first cause of its release, regarding the personality and identity of the Chinese child “Wang Zhengyang”), and even more dangerous to me (the reasons and deliberately ignoring his life now in the United States of America itself and not in the China’s capital of Beijing), in which he studied throughout his primary studies.

   I think that they are all legitimate questions and inquiries on my part, and the entire world public opinion has the right to understand, and this is the most dangerous point for me, and it should be asked and explained, as follows:

Why have we all been deceived about the true identity of the Chinese child by deliberately concealing his true age and deliberately concealing as well his whereabouts?”

Second: The accusations of Facebook founder “Mark Zuckerberg” against China, and the Chinese defense of deliberately waging a technological war and cyber hacking against the work of American technology companies

   We find that in the context of an attempt by “Facebook Company and its owner and CEO, Mark Zuckerberg” to circumvent the size of the losses that the company suffers periodically, as well as accusing it of many accusations in exchange for achieving financial gains and profits, Mark Zuckerberg’s accusations have been multiplied to China and its alternative technological applications, on the pretext (China’s attempt to impose its laws, systems, values, and communist ideology on the world), and despite the inability of “Facebook Company nor its founder Mark Zuckerberg” to prove the validity of their allegations against China, the Chinese side has begun to respond to “the violations of Facebook and its CEO Mark Zuckerberg”.  The agreed upon ethical standards, and the most important mutual accusations between the (two sides), which are as follows:

 1) It cannot be asserted that China deliberately launched a technological war and cyber hacking against the work of American technology companies, which did not explicitly accuse China in this regard.  We find that the most important statement issued by “Mark Zuckerberg”, the founder of Facebook against China, is his explicit accusation of it, saying:

“Beijing wants to impose its values ​​on us, and we will not allow another country to impose special laws on us on the Internet”

 2) The second reference against China also comes, regarding what Mark Zuckerberg referred to, as the CEO of “Facebook”, and his other frank accusation directed at China, saying:

 “Six out of 10 social media sites that exist today are mainly Chinese, and Beijing is trying to impose its values ​​on us, and we cannot allow another country to impose laws on the Internet”

 3) The first real confrontation between “Mark Zuckerberg” against China, is his decision to establish (a committee to monitor and control the movements of Chinese social networks), and this team can take the final decision without the intervention of any other official. Here, “Mark Zuckerberg” made sharp accusations against China, and indirect hints that it was “the reason behind calling him for an urgent hearing in the US Congress”, and that was several months ago, for what he rumored about him from “politicizing the content and spreading chaos and violence”.

 4) The famous American surveillance website “whois.domaintools”, as a site that specializes in monitoring domains and their owners, especially on Facebook, has published a promotional announcement, saying that:

The domain of facebook.com is for sale, due to its exposure to several previous cyber attacks”

 5) We find that China has repeatedly been subjected to fierce attacks by American officials and politicians via Facebook and China’s denunciation of this, most notably (the emergence of the Coronavirus vaccinations and the intimidation of receiving Chinese vaccines), and China accused “Mark Zuckerberg” of causing a global panic, and of aiding preventing people from getting the right vaccine.

 6) Caving in to Chinese pressure, “Mark Zuckerberg” was forced in mid-March 2021 to appear, confirming on his Facebook page his support for the global vaccination campaign and helped spread vaccine awareness ads, but the attack continued on Facebook, as a result of allowing commentators, comments and addresses to promote theories and comments that prevent people from receiving the vaccine, especially the Chinese.  Hence, we understand “the tense relationship between Facebook and its founder, Mark Zuckerberg, and China”, especially during the recent period.

   Through the previous analysis of the details of the relationship between Facebook and China, we find that the matter has gone beyond the line of technological competition to the exchange of accusations against each other, especially with what has been proven even within the American interior itself, that Facebook and its founder, “Mark Zuckerberg” is trying to play political roles and put (its gains profits and material above the public interest, as it overlooks the many damages caused by the site to its users and children), as well as proving a number of users of the “Instagram” application owned by the same company that the company deliberately sells their data and violates their privacy for purposes and interests that are purely material and not  ethical.  Hence, China is defending that:

 “Our Chinese local network of applications to preserve the values, morals, and cohesion of Chinese society itself in the face of the corruption of Facebook and its operators in the United States of America”

Third: Reasonable Chinese and international accusations that Facebook deliberately disrupted its network, coupled with evidence and proof

We find that after the failure of the Facebook network service, and the rest of the other applications associated with it, the logical question in China and the world has become:

 “Did Facebook intentionally disrupt its servers, software, and the scope of its networks around the world to hide a scandal or secrets that shook the image of the United States of America globally?”

    We note here that a number of Chinese accusations against the company “Facebook“, which adopts a number of logical reasons, deliberately in charge of the famous network – perhaps based on US government pressures, deliberately disabling the network for several hours, to hide secrets, and was based mainly on the Chinese and globally on a number of  Among the reasons behind this sudden malfunction of the “Facebook” network, including:

The Facebook company has all the adequate measures to secure its servers, software, and its giant international network from any accidental accidents, hacks, or various and innovative backups in the event of any failure or malfunction.

Facebook’s possession of the best security and technical system in the whole world, and perhaps what it has is not owned by major governments and countries, and this brings us to the same most dangerous question, related to the “conspiracy theory”, which is:

 “Did “Facebook” deliberately disrupt its servers, software and network globally for several hours?”                     

Here, logical reasons related to the international reputation of the United States of America were actually linked, which prompted Facebook and those responsible for it to disable the network, perhaps (to erase those evidence and evidence, which condemns the United States of America), and the owner of the American Facebook, “Mark Zuckerberg”, and in conjunction with events and events  Interestingly and logically linked to the sudden downfall of Facebook, such as:

(Pandora’s Leaks, the testimony of Francis Haugen)

The “Pandora Documents leak”, is one of the most important legal and political battles in the world, which Facebook is trying to contain immorally, according to the list of accusations delegated to it, which is a (leakage of a huge number of documents containing many financial secrets that may make scandals and provide financial crimes to hundreds of world leaders, politicians, billionaires and celebrities).

The accusations came to the Facebook network and its founder, “Mark Zuckerberg”, of deliberately disabling the network’s servers and data for several hours to erase and remove all documents and prices contained in documents and leaks in the name of “Pandora’s Reveal”, which is a leak of nearly 12 million documents that reveals (Fortune  secrecy, tax evasion, money laundering by some world leaders and wealthy people).

Therefore, accusations have been leveled by China and a large number of well-known journalists around the world, including more than 600 journalists in 117 countries, who began searching for a large number of sensitive files from more than 14 sources for several months to reveal (major global corruption cases affecting  the most important global leaders, which Facebook is trying to prevent in various ways in order to preserve Washington’s interests with the countries of the world) and to achieve material gains for the company at the same time.

    The data was obtained by the (International Consortium of Investigative Journalists), based in Washington DC, known as its consortium name, is: “ICIJ”

The accusations against “Facebook company deliberately disrupting its work for several hours around the world” confirm that he was working with more than (140 media organizations in the largest global investigation of its kind ever in the world, but the quality of the documents collected and found were with political and international nature, and lead to political and international crises for Washington and its allies), so it became necessary for the “Facebook” network to get rid of it completely, so it came (deliberately disrupting the network for several hours for purely political and intelligence purposes to carry out this task, and to erase those dangerous and sensitive documents, so that no access is reached  and consequently embarrassing Washington with its allies around the world), and shaking the world’s confidence in the United States of America.

On the other hand, “Facebook’s fear of publishing data, extracts or clips from the testimony of the former employee of the company, Ms. Francis Haugen against the company and its officials, is supported by documents and documents about the nature of the violations and penetrations of the Facebook network globally”. And here we mean the testimony of “Mrs. Francis Haugen”, an employee who worked as a former manager in the products department in the “Facebook” company since 2019, to help address the problem of election interference through social media, especially after (several accusations of the Russian side of interfering in the final results of the US Presidential elections), in favor of former US President “Donald Trump”.

Perhaps the most dangerous thing that “Mrs. Frances Haugen” said and tried to silence her and stop her and get rid of her by threatening her, is that American policy makers and legislators are encouraging the “Facebook and its owner Mark Zuckerberg” network to disrespect its users and violate, exploit, hack and sell their privacy for purely material purposes, as well as  On the adoption by those in charge of “Facebook” of a polluted agenda, as it incites inhuman standards for the following taboo:

 (Spreading hatred, racial discrimination between whites and blacks and all other minorities, fueling political and religious disputes and conflicts to achieve material gains, not caring about the health and security of users, especially children, by publishing games that encourage suicide in exchange for huge financial gains)

Based on the testimony of “Mrs. Francis Haugin”, the position of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, came to issue of “laws that obligate young people to abide by the male dress and not to mix identities, and to prevent the broadcast of any content in the Chinese media in which men imitate women”, with the publicly affirmation of the Chinese authorities and leaders the Communist Party of China “CPC” stated the need to work on:

  “Limiting the scope of work and spread of technology companies producing children’s electronic games and applications to reduce them and curb their growth and increasing influence”

 Hence, since November 2020, the Chinese authorities have started to adopt a strict campaign throughout the country, based and aimed primarily at “protecting children, youth and school students from falling into the trap of addiction to games and applications at the expense of their health and their relationships with the entire community”.

 And based on the evidence, evidence and previous evidence that confirms (the Facebook company intentionally disrupts its work to erase the evidence of its international condemnation).  Hence, we find, that with the (increasing of American and Western criticism to the Chinese campaign directed against American and mainly Western technology companies, which produce children’s toys), especially those that encourage suicide, such as: (Facebook films for children), policy makers in the Communist Party of China tried to assert that:

   “Germany, as a successful Western model, has adopted the same policies to protect its children and children. Despite the progress of industry and modern technologies and technology, Germany has restricted the work of children’s toy companies, with Chinese leaders confirming that Germany has succeeded in industry, production and progress, not consumption and games”

Fourth: Analyzing the aspects of Chinese benefits and the Chinese political and ethical employment for the disruption of the American “Facebook” network around the world, internally, externally and ideologically

    The malfunction of Facebook and its various applications, such as: “WhatsApp, Instagram, Messenger”, shows the extent of American hegemony over very important tools in the era of the digital economy, to extend American influence and control over the world, and in return, China has distanced itself from these (Digital chaos) by banning these American and Western applications and providing (local Chinese alternatives of technology that fits the nature and values ​​of Chinese society and protects its youth and children), through:            

My accurate analysis as an expert in Chinese Politics for (the great Chinese benefits from the disruption of Facebook as a giant of American technology around the world, and the attempt to use the matter politically, ideologically and values ​​to defend its interests), thus hitting and offending the reputation of American social networks, as well as their inability to confronting the emergency and most importantly its violations of the rights of the child, family and human being.

This may also come in the field and scope of the work of “Chinese digital technology propaganda in the face of the alliance of digital technological democracies against it, led by Washington with its allies, such as: Britain and Australia in the first place”, especially after the United States of America banned the Chinese technology giant of (Huawei company for technology), which adopts China’s plan on  The world, especially in developing and African countries, to spread (the fifth generation services “G5″ for Chinese digital technology).

China will also try to improve the reputation of its technology companies globally, especially after the arrest (the Chinese financial director of Huawei in Canada and her arrest and then recently sentenced on charges of belonging to a banned group, as well as other financial charges related to the work of the Chinese company Huawei itself), which increased the tensions of the relations between China and the United States, especially with China accusing Washington of pushing its Canadian allies to obstruct its interests around the world.

 China was able to use the disruption of American social networks to make (technological ideological propaganda for itself, by proving it with tangible evidence, that social networks in China did not suffer any glitch during the Facebook stoppage), regarding the work of applications for mobile phones in China.

Therefore, Chinese social networks, such as: “Weibo, WeChat, Kyukyo, Youku, Doyen”… etc., which were working normally during a period of downtime and disruption of all American versions of the web and its applications, especially those linked to the American Facebook network, the Chinese ideological propaganda focused mainly on the inside, stating that:

The social networks in China did not suffer any malfunctions during the failure of their American counterparts”

In this context, the Chinese media tried to emphasize (the good management of the ruling Communist Party authorities of the country, especially with the Chinese authorities banning American technological services, such as: Facebook and its applications inside China), which are: “Instagram, Twitter, and WhatsApp”, and others.  As well as (China bans the work of some other Western technology companies that have been proven to violate Chinese laws), and therefore, the Chinese citizen was not affected by any noticeable stop, with his use and use of Chinese applications alternative to the American, and from here (no one practically noticed that any of the Chinese applications stopped working within the whole mainland of China during the period of downtime and disruption of Facebook and its various applications around the world).                                                         

   Through this analysis, we understand that (China mainly focused its efforts on the inside), certainly that China does not face any similar technical problems, especially with the impact of this interruption of Facebook’s work on the accounts of millions of users around the world, as well as causing problems using the “Oculus platform” for virtual reality, which is also affiliated with “Facebook”, while (China only uses its own technological applications with a global reputation and good value, given that there were no technical problems in it, as well as observing all the ethical standards that its American counterparts neglected).

Fifth: The attitude of the Chinese people themselves towards the ban by the Chinese authorities and the leaders of the Communist Party of China of the “Facebook” website in their country, according to the Chinese Constitution

The ruling Communist Party authorities have tried to conduct (large educational and awareness campaigns for all the Chinese people about the danger of American and Western digital technologies on the identity, national culture and values ​​of the People’s State of China), as the new competition between China and the United States of America and the West is witnessing several accelerating geostrategic balances and radical internal social and political transformations. China has become more capable of changing the image of the world and the relations of competition in it in new unconventional ways, such as: the matter of “Chinese alternative technological applications in the face of Western technologies”.

This alternative proposal for Chinese digital technology, alternative to its American and Western counterparts, enhances the legitimacy and strength of governance and the ruling authorities of the Communist Party in the Chinese state, with their ability to win over the masses and Chinese public opinion with a system of cultural values ​​agreed upon among all the Chinese people with their leaders, authorities and ruling party.  Which can be understood, as follows:

The Chinese authorities have reaffirmed the depth of their far-reaching strategic view by blocking a number of American social networking sites, especially “Facebook” in China since 2009, and the Chinese authorities attributed the blocking to (three main reasons), which are:

First: Because (those American social media sites deliberately underestimate the values of China and fail to mention the China’s historical facts), such as deliberately mentioning the necessity of reviving the old revolutions in China and promoting their renewal.

Second: The presence of (gaps in the security and privacy options on Facebook, and its threat to Chinese national security).

Third: The growing criticism against China on the famous search engine website of “Google”, and its intentional publication of “pornographic materials”, which (infiltrate the privacy of children and the Chinese family).

2) The Chinese authorities also blocked the famous American website of “Amazon” for selling books, due to the intention of the “Amazon” website to provoke China despite its warning, by deliberately selling and promoting a book banned from publication in China that talks about revolutions, as if anyone clicks on a website or link of the book is on Amazon from China, the site is completely blocked for at least 15 minutes, which is an attempt by the Chinese state to maintain its security and stability and protect its history and heritage in the face of American and Western absurdity, as China officially defends itself.

 3) Hence, (private Chinese applications began to promote themselves, and the Chinese media themselves promoted them, by not disrupting them during the period of downtime and sudden failure in other American digital services), which cost heavy losses in the United States of America approaching 164 thousand dollars, losses per minute, that is, nearly $60 million, which China has not faced.

 4) As for the position of the Chinese themselves towards banning Facebook in their country, you find that “Chinaese people keenness to preserve the value system of Chinese society”, considering that American websites, such as: (Facebook, Twitter, Google), and the other applications, as from China’s point of view, they’re looking to the American and Western IT applications may (infect the Chinese value system, as it threatens the culture of the Chinese).

 5) According to the Chinese constitution, “the Chinese state itself is morally responsible for protecting its citizens from exposure to Western and American cultural invasion”, and also for closing the door on Western attempts to use these sites to foment internal political unrest against the Chinese state.

 6) Hence, we find that China, after the disruption of Facebook and the rest of the other related applications, we can analytically highlightthe (Chinese promotion of the superiority of its digital values and technological model in the face of American and Western applications), and the Chinese affirmation of the validity of its theory to follow a policy called: (Building the Great Firewall Project china)

  Or what is officially, known as: “the Golden Cover Project”,or “Golden Shield”.

   Which is one of the most important and sensitive Chinese technical projects to monitor the Internet and block the unwanted websites, and it is considered one of (the most advanced Chinese sensitive technical projects in the world).

     Based on the understanding of the Chinese technological map and the most important methods and celebrities that China adopts in the face of American and Western digital technologies such as Facebook, as we analyzed it, and from here we find that (the ruling Communist Party authorities in China are trying to take advantage of the rapid technological progress in the mainland of China to change the geostrategic map of the world in a fast way, whose nature has not yet been clear in the face of American hegemony and unilateralism), which is evident to us from the way and mechanism of the Chinese political and ethical employment of the (relationship between the technology and politics and the interaction and mutual influence between them), which represents one of the most important determinants of this new world, and the innovative non-traditional competition trends between  China and the USA.

Sixth: The relationship between (the crisis of disrupting Facebook and restoring China’s technological prestige and position) between its citizens and the world, and promoting the theory of “the superiority of Chinese technological applications over their American counterparts”

   The researchers, scholars, and the international academic community around the world are witnessing the emergence of new technological and cognitive terms that are all centered around the American-Chinese technological conflict and polarization at the present time in its political form, such as the term of (Techno-Politics).

    This new term of “Techno Politics” refers to (the relationship between political and technological affairs in its changing form), in a way that can be applied to the current conflict and competition between China and the United States of America over “fifth generation networks and the United States’ ban on the Chinese company Huawei”, as a result of the struggle over the acquisition of technological applications and their relationship  The nature of competition and political polarization between Washington and Beijing, but in terms of digital and technology, which we can apply and understand on the part of China during the crisis of the Facebook disruption, as follows:

The crisis of disruption of Facebook and the rest of the applications associated with it, such as: (WhatsApp, Instagram), and others, has restored China’s technological prestige and position among its citizens, and demonstrated the depth and far-sightedness of the policies of the Communist Party of China, emphasizing that:

   “China’s blocking of many American social media sites is not in vain, as the Chinese state sees great importance in “not leaving the personal information of its members in foreign hands that may one day exploit that information, which is our primary task in preserving the Chinese citizen, as one of the important ingredients for maintaining China’s national security”

This also reminds us of a crisis that occurred a few years ago, a crisis occurred between “the American Google company” and China, during which the two parties exchanged accusations that took a political nature, and ended with the consent and agreement of the two parties to transfer the “Google” engine service to the city of “Hong Kong”, where it directs you to Google’s Hong Kong site directly, if you try to open the site in any of the other provinces and provinces of China.

On the other hand, China is trying to promote other Chinese search engines competing with the US, such as: Baidu”, which was launched by China in 2000, to be the first search engine in the country, and also a strong competitor to the American company “Google”.

We can also recognize the “Youku website” in China, which is the Chinese alternative to “YouTube”, as “Youku” is the most largest and important site that provides the service of uploading and publishing videos on the Internet in China, and the site is characterized by the ability to upload unlimited videos, as it allows users to upload full movies and complete episodes of Chinese, Korean, and American series. And the site as well allows the Chinese people to follow up on many (non-Chinese films and series, as they are accompanied by Chinese subtitles on the screen), outperforming the services of the YouTube American site.

We also find that the “Weibo” site in China, as the Chinese alternative to “Twitter”, which is blocked in China, and the word “Weibo” in Arabic means (small tweets or short posts), and according to the “Weibo site’s statistics”, its Chinese users are daily writing more than 100 million microblogs, outperforming the famous Twitter social networking site.

Here, we also find the “QQ” application in China, with taking into consideration that “QQ”, is considered one of the largest chat programs in China, and an alternative to the famous chat programs, such as: (MSN & Yahoo), which the Chinese do not accept to use.

We also find the “WeChat” applicationor “Weixin” in Chinese, which is the most used application in China for social networking, where the parent company revealed a new report to it, which showed that it has so far more than 400 million active users and they are constantly increasing.

With the intensification of the Chinese accusations against the United States of America, which I consider to be the most violent of all, was the accusation of the Chinese Vice Foreign Minister “Xie Feng” to the United States of America publicly, of “trying to eliminate the Chinese regime”,  In text, he said:

“There is a campaign by an entire government and an entire society that is being waged to bring down China”

  This was reported by the well-known Chinese newspaper, “China Daily”, during “Ms. Sherman’s visit to Tianjin province in China”, on July 26, 2021, who is considered the most high-level ranking senior official in the American administration of President “Joe Biden” to visit China.

  Finally, we find that through the previous comprehensive analysis of the Egyptian researcher to analyze and understand the nature of the work of Chinese technology companies in the face of their American and Western counterparts, we can now accurately understand (the role or employment of the political and value but also the ideology of Chinese and American technology companies and all other digital platforms associated with them to play real and independent geopolitical roles).

    Therefore, the talk about (the disruption of the Facebook network around the world, the role of China and the exchange of accusations between all concerned parties is closely linked to national security and its link to digital technology and the giant Chinese digital technology projects globally in the Silicon Valley region), especially with the connection of advanced technology networks and companies at the present time with governments, which applies to “Facebook” and its connection with the US federal government and various political institutions as I mentioned, and also with the association of Chinese companies working in the technology sector with the government, this shows us with evidence (the seriousness of the relationship between digital technology, politics and national security) for both China and the USA in our case.

  Hence, what most analytically caught my eye, academically and researchly was (Chinese President Comrade Xi Jinping’s meeting with Apple CEO “Tim Cook”, at rates that exceed his meeting with presidents and leaders in the whole world).  This is a confirmation of what I  have previously presented in this close connection between the governments of countries and giant technology companies, and even (transcends their borders because of their connection with armies and all national security files around the world, which is almost applicable to the American and Chinese cases and the Chinese alternatives applied to digital technology in the face of American and Western competition, in order to preserve  on its national security from any penetration), and this fully proves and confirms our theory about (the relationship between politics, technology and national security, the limits and extensions of influence between each other).

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Vaccine Passports Mandated in the New World Order

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At this moment in western democracies, we are passing into a period of great unrest -social, political, and corporate where governments are enabling and exploiting the coronavirus pandemic to justify the suppression of civil rights. We became prone to think by merely reciting The Constitution, a Charter of Rights and Freedoms, or great acts of past patriotism that the future liberties are forever secure to us because we simply inherited the fine qualities of common descent and live in the same democratic territories.  

This is not about whether one should take the COVID-19 vaccine to protect themselves from illness but rather the dangers of the health crisis becoming the vehicle where totalitarianism has invoked a state of emergency where vaccine passports are compulsory to quell a global and national threat. We are going over the cliff where governments target their doctrine, release paramilitary forces such a Big Tech’s oversight to control and remove opposing medical opinions and science on their social media platforms, and subvert the rule of law –all historical and identifiable steps recognized to crush representative forms of government.

Robust democracies have seen this unfold very rapidly and systematically where vaccine executive orders, corporate policy, and the swift erosion of privacy and freedom to assemble are all acceptable trade-offs in complying with the restrictions and mandates for the gratifications to travel, dine out, attend family events and entertainment as well as removing the fear of one’s employment being terminated, and escape personal shaming by friends, co-workers, and even family for not abiding.    

President Joe Biden’s claim that the pandemic is a pandemic of the unvaccinated where selfish humans are a threat to those already vaccinated is a most potent force for evil. This mendacity to slander has now put a premium on the knavery to attack those unwilling to insert a medicine into their bodies. The hysterical exaggeration to assail with such divisiveness has exacerbating social divisions and created a much greater epidemic of indiscriminate assault of the character with calls to arrest them, lock them out of society, and even calling them murderers.

Those who ask questions are vilified, suppressed, and censored. Federal agencies, mainstream media and social media insist they alone represent science, and any other interpretation of data is labeled dangerous misinformation. Even if one disagrees, and the unvaccinated continue to be attacked in a historic, explicit, and untruthful fashion, the attack by the politician will do more harm to the public mind than the crime of one’s constitutional rights and freedoms to decline the injections.  

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s address to the United Nations used the pandemic as an excuse to contain the masses and accentuate the “Great Reset”, a formal initiative from the World Economic Forum, when he stated, “This pandemic has provided an opportunity for a reset. This is our chance to accelerate our pre-pandemic efforts, to reimagine economic systems that actually address global challenges like extreme poverty, inequality, and climate change.” The global elites orchestrating Covid-19 lockdowns and passports to usher in this ‘Great Reset’ should alarm you.

Preparations to control the populations were in motion when the Canadian Military was caught using the Pandemic to test propaganda techniques in what can only be described as a hatched blueprint for governments to suppress their unsuspected citizens. In response, the Canadian Forces acknowledged that tactical policies and doctrines are aimed at adversaries and have limited application domestically, however these schemes were discovered to be implemented on their own citizens to head off civil disobedience by Canadians during the pandemic and enhance command decisions in targeting those who criticize the government’s pandemic mandates.

If you are still skeptical that freedoms are not under threat, a Polish Canadian pastor, Artur Pawlowski recently landed in his home city of Calgary following a four-month tour of the US where customs officials were waiting for him. While on his knees, Pawlowski was cuffed on tarmac and his electronic devices were confiscated. Pawlowski had been traveling over the summer to spread his warning that Western governments increasingly resemble the communist regime in Poland that he fled as a young man. After being away for months, he was not even allowed to hug his wife and children before being taken away

On previous occasions, armed and uninvited officials entered Pawlowski’s church sanctuary during a worship service where he called them Nazis; and then a motorcade of police pulled him over in the middle of a busy highway to arrest him. One can argue whether the pastor should have been wearing a mask in public or holding services, but one does not imagine the ruthless and heavy-handed tactics normally witnessed in tyrannical nations and not in Canada unless there is a much bigger agenda to break this man and send a frightful message to any other dissidents contemplating to speak out against their government.    

In another teetering democracy, the Australian Deputy Premier of New South Wales, John Barilard, spouted to the unvaccinated that if you choose not to be vaccinated, you will lose your freedoms. Police are now physically taking down their own citizens and arresting them if you happen to walk through the neighbourhood while not wearing a mask or ascertaining if they have been vaccinated.

One must wonder what is really going on with this crackdown reminiscent of the Chinese Communist response in the early days of the pandemic when there have been only 1,300 COVID-related deaths in Australia from a population of nearly 26 million. Overall deaths in the first half of 2021 were 71,500, an increase of 4,200 on average over the past 5 years while this virus would be responsible for a mere 400 deaths in a six-month period. The answer was clear when Dr. Kerry Chant, a leading health official in New South Wales, stated emphatically that we will be looking at what contact tracing looks like in the New World Order.

All the restrictions, vaccines, and school and business closures now lead us to the most dangerous tool in the repertoire. Once accepted and in popular use, there is no more choice remaining to participate in society. Created on the similar platform as the Communist Chinese Party’s surveillance QR code, the vaccine passport and its future use is the linchpin to government approvals in this New World Order.

First, governments, places of education, and hospitals made the passport mandatory under a state of a health emergency to maintain one’s employment, achieve an education, and attend events.  Large corporations and smaller businesses are not only following suit now with the passport path made clear, but they also became the front door fascist arbitrators in checking one’s vaccine papers to assimilate into the global technocracy.  

Currently there are numerous passport programs attempting to meet a wide range of public and private organization’s requirements. The Vaccination Credential Initiative VCI, whose members include the Mayo Clinic, Microsoft, Apple, Wal-Mart, the states of New York and California, and more than 220 other organizations, are looking to verify COVID-19 and other health information with a common standardized smartphone app that could be used worldwide.

By incorporating the data in a smartphone app, people will always have their passport readily available when required by the authorities. Organizations such as the US Centers for Disease Control and the UN World Health Organization will determine the required digital health documents that must be contained in the app.

Governments and the VCI will advocate for greater security due to widespread counterfeit passports and cybersecurity concerns over hackers gaining access to personal information. Additionally, more than a billion people globally cannot prove their identity with no issued birth certificate or access to a smartphone.

The solution to these issues and ensuring authentic vaccine verification will be the use of iris-based biometric systems that allow people even in the most remote places on earth to be downloaded into the global database by using a portable scanner. The technology will be dubbed a gamechanger with its secure and accurate features, and the cost-efficient rollout.       

The contactless iris-based technology records the unique patterns in the colored ring surrounding the pupil to authenticate identity; including infants whose patterns form within the first year of life. Industry experts will enroll a person in the one-time biometric database in a few seconds, while authentication requires only a second to complete. This technology will adhere to international standards and eliminate the need for photo ID.

Another great democracy, the United Kingdom, has moved quickly in utilizing a vaccine passport that processes biometric facial recognition data. The National Health Services admitted that private data collected can be accessed by UK law enforcement. The NHS has not publicly disclosed the contract with iProov, the private company apparently operating the app, and it unclear whether the NHS has completed a privacy risk assessment of the collected data; however, it is known that one of iProov’s customers is the US Department of Homeland Security. The crossover of data to the department known to track terrorist threats could very well expand operations to conduct surveillance on anti-passport dissidents.

A group of UK lawyers established to challenge technocracy suggested that we should all reflect on whether we are heading towards a world where people must use their faces just to walk into the supermarket or the pharmacy or the nightclub. A prominent doctor added that once this stuff is brought in. it’s difficult to get rid of with COVID being the opportunity to gain a foothold.

The extension of the app beyond the pretext of the pandemic is evident with the Chinese Communist Party’s surveillance QR code lingering and being maintained beyond the pandemic. The technologies in the passport will see the system ‘function creep’ its way into new purposes. China possesses over half the world’s 800 million close circuit cameras located along every street to constantly scan one’s movement, purchases, behaviour, and who you are communicating with. This is all possible through Skynet, an interlinked system of facial recognition and surveillance to identify citizens in a national database. According to state media, Skynet is fast enough to scan the entire population in under a second with an accuracy rate of 99.8%.

History tends to repeat itself. In leading up to the Holocaust, there was a time like today with vaccine passports and mandates being required to enter a restaurant, attend school, or board a plane where the freedoms and businesses of the lives of millions of Jews were being destroyed as the Gestapo demanded papers from every German. Much of what is happening today throughout western democracies; particularly to the unvaccinated had taken place in 1938, including the popular support of the government’s actions whether it be Germany’s Third Reich or current governments implementing draconian vaccine mandates.

This is not about vaccines since both the vaccinated and unvaccinated can transmit COVID-19, but rather forcibly injecting people or become a sub-human dissident and wear the Jewish star on your clothing. Social media and the mainstream news have effectively become the neo-fascist public relations arm of the governments in putting forth their non-stop messaging and experts pinning the pandemic against the unvaccinated. 

The vaccine passport has effectively created a list of who will be persecuted, who will lose their job, who will lose their education, who will lose their dignity, and who will be shut out and left behind. The Nazis also had a list of Jews and those who disagreed with the agenda. These people were enemies of the state, sent to concentration camps, and disappeared over night.

Today, there is a clear example and modeling in Xinjang, Northwest China, where the cultural elimination of the mostly Muslim Uighurs is taking place. The most intensive surveillance of this religious people includes providing DNA, undergoing digital and biometric scans, and they must always carry a smartphone with tracking apps or be arrested. Many Uighurs are blindfolded and transported in trains to re-education detention camps -reminiscent of a time when hated humans were crammed into trains on a one-way trip to Auschwitz.

One of the most shocking revelations coming out of Canada under the COVID-19 public health emergency is Martial Law-like measures being prepared as noted by the Order of the Lieutenant Governor Council 465/2021 dated September 13, 2021, that declares sweeping powers of the government in the Province of Saskatchewan. These powers under the Act will be enacted in other regional jurisdictions as we begin to witness hospitals collapse with the unvaccinated terminated and food and fuel shortages resulting in panic buying.

The draconian powers in Saskatchewan include assuming control of local authorities and acquire or utilize personal property necessary, control and prohibit travel -likely military checkpoints, the removal of persons, livestock, and personal property including entry without a warrant, procure and fix food and fuel prices, collect and disclose information to prevent or combat the effects of the emergency, and conscript persons where required. These actions can no longer be considered a conspiracy theory.     

Will the future of democracies slide into a system of values where a quasi-democratic neo-fascist and hybrid communist alliance of mutual interest wins the world over in its quest for political supremacy where freedom has been consumed by social conditioning?      

We may do well to look back at the soldier who had the power to lose his own life for the life of a larger cause, and decide if we, an intruder or mere outsider, also possess the spirit of courage that holds personal suffering of no account and have the foresight and conscience to reverse this great wrong which has sapped the foundation of self-government by the people and for the people.

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The Curious Case of Russian Cyberattacks in India

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As the world grapples with the COVID-19 pandemic, the technological shifts have made working remotely a reality for millions of people. But it is not just the ‘Zoom fatigue’ that has been on rise due to the drastic increase of virtual workspaces. According to data from India’s Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In), cyber-attacks in India rose by almost 300 percent in 2020 in comparison to 2019.

Not only India, but other countries like US, UK, and Germany too are witnessing an increase in cyber-attacks aimed at stealing, sabotaging, or destroying data. However, high usage of legacy systems in India, both in offices and homes, puts India at a higher risk. According to a report released in June this year, by the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), India is categorised as a Tier 3 nation based on its core cyber-intelligence capabilities, cyber security and resilience, strategy and doctrine, and offensive cyber capability. While US is the only nation in Tier 1, and Tier 2 consists of nations like Australia, China, Canada, France, Israel and Russia; India stands with Iran, Malaysia, Vietnam and North Korea with significant weaknesses in some of the categories mentioned above.  

A 2018 report by F-secure, a cyber-security firm who deployed ‘honeypots’ across the world to enable information collection regarding cyber-attacks, highlighted that India had faced over 695,000 cyber-attacks between June and July 2018, with most cases emerging from Russia (more than 250,000).

More recently in March this year, a report by Cyfirma- a Goldman Sachs backed Singapore based threat intelligence firm, highlighted that Indian pharma companies and hospitals have been targeted by Russian, Chinese and Korean hacker groups, and identified 15 active hacking groups, again most groups linked to Russia (7).

The Russian Cyber-offensive

It is not hard to believe that Russia has been pointed out as the biggest source for cyber-attacks, considering frequent reports and allegations put on Russia-based groups since over a decade. Russia and US have engaged in cyber espionage campaigns for long and now China has also entered the fray.

But the question that needs consideration is whether the Indian government is ready to acknowledge that Russian hackers have become the biggest source of cyber-attacks on India, and whether New Delhi mulls over expressing displeasure about this to Moscow. Various reports have attributed cyber-attacks on India originating from Russian groups like APT-29 or the ‘Cozy Bear’- the group  also accused of hacking US government agencies in 2014-15 and alleged to be aligned with the Russian intelligence services.

This displeasure would not be without precedent when it comes to Russian origin cyber-attacks. In June this year, the US president Joe Biden asked Russian president Vladimir Putin during their summit how Putin would feel if a ransomware attack hits Russia’s oil network (referring to an attack on the US pipeline network recently). The US president wants to take a stern approach towards cyber-attacks from Russia and has commented that he will take ‘any necessary action’ to stop them. In the same month, the Polish government blamed Russia secret services for a wave of cyber-attacks on Polish government officials from various political parties. And in September this year, Germany has accused Russia of cyber-attacks to interfere in elections to choose Germany’s new chancellor to succeed Angela Merkel.

However, New Delhi has refrained from releasing any statement.  

It can be argued that when it comes to cyber-attacks, in absence of ability to assign accurate culpability on any individual, group or country, New Delhi would not want to sour relations with Moscow, given the strong partnership between India and Russia witnessed in the last two decades. Moreover, the categories like ‘Russian origin’, or ‘Russian speaking’, used by US based reports and allegations, leave a lot to be interpreted.

Many reports have highlighted that China based hackers and groups have hit Russian systems, which are alleged to be backed by state authorities. In a report by a US company Sentinel One, a hacker group associated with China was involved in using malicious software to hack websites of Russian government agencies for stealing confidential government data. While this means that Russia and China conduct cyber espionage against each other, similar reciprocity from India towards Russia has not been observed.

Moreover, it cannot be ruled out that China uses Russian-origin groups to hit Indian cyberspace, given how several reports point towards common goals of Russia and China based hacking groups in multiple realms like counter espionage against US and the continuously developing alliances and groupings in the Indo-pacific region which are seen by China and Russia as mechanisms for their containment. But any finger-pointing by New Delhi towards Moscow in public domain will only bring delight to Beijing.

Conclusion

In 2015, an official statement from Indian Ministry of Home Affairs had said that India and Russia will form an ‘expert group’ on cybersecurity to jointly fight the threat of terrorism (from Islamic extremists such as ISIS). However, it turned out to be only a gesture from the two sides and not working model evolved.

At present, Budapest convention is the main legally binding multilateral treaty which criminalises cyber-crime and coordinates cybercrime investigations between nation-states. India and Russia are both non-signatories to this convention. Instead, in last few years Russia has led a campaign for a cyber-crime convention to be adopted in United Nations, which includes an expanded list of cyber-crime categories. In 2019, India had voted in favour of the UN resolution for adopting this draft convention.

For now, as highlighted by many experts, India is in utmost need for a National Cyber Strategy. New Delhi needs to formulate policies to upgrade the legacy systems and take measures to shield all possible routes that can be utilised to harm India’s cyber-security. New Delhi should talk to Moscow when it comes to tightening grips on Russian origin cyber-attacks on India. Given the historical closeness in India-Russia relationship and the rejuvenation both nations have witnessed in last few years, New Delhi’s concerns might not be brushed aside by Moscow, like those of US. 

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