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Hells on Earth: A Hobbesian Ranking of Peace, Democracy, Health and Freedom around the World

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There are numerous think tanks, non-governmental organizations, and philanthropic institutions diligently and impressively working all around the globe today to bring us knowledge and data sets about the state of the world’s countries across a host of important life indexes. While their work is obviously inspired to bring attention to and ultimately alleviate some of the world’s worst crises and suffering, this article wants to use the same extensive data sets to bring to light the bottom of the barrel, so to speak: to highlight what are unfortunately the worst places on earth to be accidentally born into.

Now, one small caveat: this is not to take aim at or denigrate any of the cultures, traditions, or customs of the countries discussed below. Indeed, my global experiences give credence to the fact that some of the richest tapestries of culture and history are often in places with the WORST contemporary governance. People are wonderful creatures in that way: not simply resilient, but striving to create little pockets of enlightenment and joy in the midst of tyranny, corruption, and degradation. So, keep this in mind as we consider the worst hells on earth: it is not an indictment against any particular place or culture but rather evidence of how maddeningly easy it is to let modern people ruin what would otherwise be great richness.

The following rankings are run from a host of the world’s best and most thorough data-collection organizations, including the United Nations, Freedom House, the World Bank, Transparency International, Human Rights Watch, International Crisis Group, RAND Corporation, Oxfam, the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, the Council on Foreign Relations, Brookings, and the National Endowment for Democracy. They are by no means the only organizations doing good work in these areas but they are estimable exemplars of said subjects.

Poverty (10 WORST)

10. Madagascar    9. Eritrea           8. Guinea             7. Mozambique                6. Malawi

5. Niger                                4. Liberia             3. Burundi           2. Democratic Republic of Congo

1. Central African Republic

Human Rights (10 WORST)

10. Nigeria           9. Yemen             8. Myanmar        7. Iraq                   6. Afghanistan

5. Somalia            4. Pakistan          3. Democratic Republic of Congo               2. Sudan

1. Syria

Human Development (12 LOWEST)

177. Liberia         178. Guinea Bissau          179. Mali              180. Mozambique            181. Sierra Leone

182. Guinea        183. Burkina Faso             184. Burundi       185. Chad            186. Eritrea

187. Central African Republic      188. Niger

Corruption (12 HIGHEST RATES)

176 Somalia        175 South Sudan              174 North Korea               173 Syria              170 Yemen

170 Sudan           170 Libya              169 Afghanistan                168 Guinea-Bissau           166 Venezuela

166 Iraq                164 Eritrea

Democratic Institutions (12 LEAST DEVELOPED AND CONSOLIDATED)

156 Yemen          157 Guinea-Bissau           158 Uzbekistan 159 Saudi Arabia

159 Democratic Republic of Congo           161 Tajikistan     162 Turkmenistan

163 Equatorial Guinea    164 Central African Republic        165 Chad              166 Syria

167 North Korea

Gender Equality (10 LEAST EQUAL)

10. Morocco       9. Jordan              8. Lebanon          7. Cote d’Ivoire 6. Iran

5. Mali                   4. Syria  3. Chad 2. Pakistan          2. Saudi Arabia

1. Yemen

Crime (10 HIGHEST RATES)

1.Venezuela       2. Papua New Guinea    3. Honduras        4. South Sudan

5.South Africa    6. Afghanistan   7. El Salvador      8. Nigeria             9. Brazil

10.Trinidad and Tobago

Social Welfare (12 LEAST SUPPORTIVE)

166 Central African Republic                        165 Democratic Republic of Congo           164 North Korea

163 Liberia           162 Burundi        161 Mali               160 Comoros      159 Mozambique

158 Niger             157 Haiti               156 Togo              155 Guinea-Bissau

Health Care (10 WORST COVERED)

10 Zambia            9 Lesotho            8 Mozambique  7 Malawi              6 Liberia               5 Nigeria

4 Democratic Republic of Congo                3 Central African Republic            2 Myanmar

1 Sierra Leone

Political Rights and Civil Liberties (11 WORST FREEDOM LEVELS)

1.Syria   2. Eritrea              3. North Korea 4. Uzbekistan                     5. South Sudan

6.            Turkmenistan    7. Somalia            8. Sudan               9. Equatorial Guinea

10.          Central African Republic                11. Saudi Arabia

These 10 indexes were taken because I believe they represent, in total, just about every plausible measure the would encompass a ‘good life.’ Now, this is not an ode to American greed or a testimony to global market capitalism: a ‘good life’ does not mean endless riches, multiple fast cars, or flashy bling (Sorry, Hollywood and Dubai). Rather, it is a much simpler calculation of having some disposable income, leisure time, political participation, reliable governance, and rational social safety net. Not overwhelming requests or expectations by any means. But taken together they provide a human being the opportunity to plan for and be excited about the future and a belief that while wrongs and injustices may still occur in life, they have reasonable expectation to take recourse to right any unjust wrong legally and judiciously.

And so, without further ado, I give the Nihilistic Nine: countries that found their names on the ten indexes the most. In each case the indexes are listed, as I believe there is some fascinating future research possible by understanding just where a country fails its people and does not provide a good life. Some entries are expected because of the horror of war and egregious governmental ineptitude (like Syria, Yemen, and the Democratic Republic of Congo). But some entries I dare say will leave people scratching their heads: not because you thought these places were bastions of stability and prosperity, but rather because you likely have never heard or seen anything about these countries at all. And in that case perhaps the most important question we need to be asking is not how these countries are faring so poorly, but WHY has the world basically said and done nothing about them?

So, take a very good look at the following list. For these are the places, quantitatively, that tell us you can find Hell on earth, a wretched affirmation that what Hobbes noted so many centuries ago still torments the modern day: that even in the 21st century, there remain places where life is nothing but nasty, brutish, and short.

Niger: Human Development, Poverty, Social Welfare

Nigeria: Human Rights, Crime, Health Care

Eritrea: Corruption, Human Development, Poverty

Guinea-Bissau: Social Welfare, Corruption, Human Development

Saudi Arabia: Democratic Institutions, Gender Equality, Political Rights and Civil Liberties

Yemen: Gender Equality, Democratic Institutions, Corruption, Human Rights

DRC: Health Care, Social Welfare, Democratic Institutions, Human Rights, Poverty

Syria: Human Rights, Corruption, Democratic Institutions, Gender Equality, Political Rights and Civil Liberties

Central African Republic: Political Rights and Civil Liberties, Health Care, Social Welfare, Democratic Institutions, Human Development, Poverty

Dr. Matthew Crosston is Executive Vice Chairman of ModernDiplomacy.eu and chief analytical strategist of I3, a strategic intelligence consulting company. All inquiries regarding speaking engagements and consulting needs can be referred to his website: https://profmatthewcrosston.academia.edu/

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Africa

Critical Views On Russia’s Policy Towards Africa Within Context Of New World Order

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In September WhatsApp conversation with Matthew Ehret, a Senior Fellow and International Relations Expert at the American University in Moscow, he offers an insight into some aspects of Russia-African relations within the context of the emerging new global order. 

In particular, Matthew gives in-depth views on Russia’s valuable contribution in a number of economic sectors including infrastructure development during the past few years in Africa, some suggestions for African leaders and further on the possible implications of Russia-China collaboration with Africa. Here are important excerpts of the wide-ranging interview:

What are the implications here and from historical perspectives that Russia is looking for its allies from Soviet-era in Africa…and “non-Western friends” for creating the new world order?

Russia is certainly working very hard to consolidate its alliances with many nations of the global south and former non-aligned network. This process is hinged on the Russia-China alliance best exemplified by the integration of the Eurasian Economic Union with the Belt and Road Initiative and the spirit of cooperation outlined in the the Feb. 4 Joint Statement for a New Era of Cooperation.

Of course this is more than simply gaining spheres of influence as many analysts try to interpret the process now underway, but has much more to do with a common vision for instituting a new system of cooperation, creative growth and long term thinking uniting diverse cultural and religious groups of the globe around a common destiny which is a completely different type of paradigm than the unipolar ideology of closed-system thinking dominant among the technocrats trying to manage the rules based international order.

Soviet Union, of course, enormously supported Africa’s liberation struggle and resultantly attained political independence in the 60s. What could be the best practical way for Russia to fight what it now referred to as “neocolonialism” in Africa?

Simply operating on a foundation of honest business is an obvious but important thing to do. The African people have known mostly abuse and dishonest neo-colonial policies under the helm of the World Bank and IMF since WW2, and so having Russia continue to provide investment and business deals tied to the construction of special economic zones that drive industrial growth, infrastructure and especially modern electricity access which Africa desperately needs are key in this process.

African countries currently need to transform the untapped resources, build basic infrastructure and get industrialized -these are necessary to become somehow economic independent. How do you evaluate Russia’s role in these economic areas, at least, during the past decade in Africa?

It has been improving steadily. Of course, Russia does not have the same level of national controls over their banking system as we see enjoyed by China whose trade with Africa has attained $200 billion in recent years while Russia’s trade with Africa is about $20 billion. But despite that, Russia has done well to not only provide trains in Egypt, and has made the emphasis on core hard infrastructure, energy, water systems, and interconnectivity a high priority in the 2019 Russia-Africa Summit and the upcoming 2023 Summit.

Generally, how can we interpret African elite’s sentiments about Russia’s return to Africa? Do you think Russia is most often critical about United States and European Union’s hegemony in Africa?

I think the over arching feeling is one of trust and relief that Russia has returned with a spirit of cooperation. According to all the messaging from Lavrov who recently completed an important Africa tour late July, I can say that Russia is very critical of the USA and EU approach to hegemony in Africa. As Museveni and the South Africa Foreign Minister have recently emphasized, they are sick of being talked down to and threatened by western patronizing technocrats, whereas we see a sense of mutual respect among the discourse of Russian and Chinese players which is seen as a breath of fresh air. 

While the west is obsessed with “appropriate green technologies” for Africa while chastizing the continent for its corruption problems (which is fairly hypocritical when one looks at the scope of corruption within the Wall Street- City of London domain), Russia supports all forms of energy development from coal, oil, natural gas and even nuclear which Africa so desperately needs to leapfrog into the 21st century.

Understandably, Russia’s policy has to stimulate or boost Africa’s economic aspirations especially among the youth and the middle class. What are views about this? And your objective evaluation of Russia’s public outreach diplomacy with Africa?

So far Russia has done well in stimulating their youth policy with expanded scholarships to African youth touching on agricultural science, engineering, medicine, IT, and other advanced sectors. Additionally the Special Economic Zones built up by Russia in Mozambique, Egypt have established opportunities for manufacturing and other technical training that has largely been prevented from growing under the IMF-World Bank model of conditionality laced loans driven primarily by the sole aim of resource extraction for western markets and overall control by a western elite. Russia has tended to follow China’s lead (and her own historic traditions of aiding African nations in their development aspirations) without pushing the sorts of regime change operations or debt slavery schemes which have been common practice by the west for too long.

Sochi summit has already provided the key to the questions you have, so far, discussed above. Can these, if strategically and consistently addressed, mark a definitive start of a new dawn in the Russia-African relations?

Most certainly.

Geopolitical confrontation, rivalry and competition in Africa. Do you think there is an emerging geopolitical rivalry, and confrontation against the United States and Europe (especially France) in Africa? What if, in an alliance, China and Russia team up together?

China and Russia have already teamed up together on nearly every aspect of geopolitical, scientific, cultural and geo-economic interest imaginable which has created a robust basis for the continued successful growth of the multipolar alliance centered as it is upon such organizations as the BRICS+, SCO, ASEAN and BRI/Polar Silk Road orientation. This is clear across Africa as well and to the degree that this alliance continues to stand strong, which I see no reason why it would not for the foreseeable future, then an important stabilizing force can not only empower African nations to resist the threats, intimidation and destabilizing influences of western unipolarists. 

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Sahel security crisis ‘poses a global threat’

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Refugee women prepare food in a displacement site in Ouallam, in the Tillaberi region of Niger. © UNOCHA/Michele Cattani

Rising insecurity, including the proliferation of terrorist and other non-State armed groups, coupled with political instability, is creating a crisis in the Sahel that poses a “global threat”, the UN chief warned Thursday’s high level meeting on the vast African region, which took place behind closed doors at UN Headquarters in New York.

“If nothing is done, the effects of terrorism, violent extremism and organized crime will be felt far beyond the region and the African continent”, said Secretary-General António Guterres, in his remarks issued by his Spokesperson’s Office.

“A coordinated international breakthrough is urgently needed. We must rethink our collective approach and show creativity, going beyond existing efforts.”

The insecurity is making a “catastrophic humanitarian situation even worse”, he said, leaving some beleaguered national governments, without any access to their own citizens.

‘Deadly grip’ tightening

Meanwhile, “non-State armed groups are tightening their deadly grip over the region and are even seeking to extend their presence into the countries of the Gulf of Guinea.”

The indiscriminate use of violence by terrorist and other groups means that thousands of innocent civilians are left to suffer, while millions of others are forced from their homes, Mr. Guterres told the meeting of national leaders, during the High Level Week summit.

Women and children in particular are bearing the brunt of insecurity, violence and growing inequality”, he said, with human rights violations, sometimes committed by security forces mandated to protect civilians, “of great concern”.

Climate factor

And the crises are being compounded by climate change, said the UN chief, with soil erosion and the drying-up of water sources, “thereby contributing to acute food insecurity and exacerbating tensions between farmers and herders.”

“Against a global backdrop of turmoil on energy, food and financial markets, the region is threatened by a systemic debt crisis that is likely to have repercussions throughout the continent.”

The conventional international finance remedies are not helping, the UN chief said bluntly, with more and more countries forced to channel precious reserves into servicing debt payments, leaving them unable to pursue an inclusive recovery, or boost resilience.

“It is absolutely necessary to change the rules of the game of the financial reports of the world. These rules of the game are today completely against the interests of developing countries, and in particular the interests of African countries”, said Mr. Guterres, “with debt problems, with liquidity problems, with inflation problems, with instability, necessarily posed by this profound injustice in international financial and economic relations.”

Democracy, constitutional order

The UN chief called for a “renewal of our collective efforts to promote democratic governance and restore constitutional order” across the whole Sahel, which stretches from Senegal in the west to northern Eritrea and Ethiopia in the east, a belt beneath the Sahara of up to 1,000 kilometres.

The rule of law and full respect for human rights are indispensable for ensuring security and sustainable development, Mr. Guterres said.

Addressing national leaders and senior politicians from the region, he said the UN “stands ready to work alongside you, with urgency and solidarity, for a peaceful, stable and prosperous Sahel.”

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South Sudan: Extended roadmap for lasting peace deal, a ‘way point, not an end point’

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Since 2018, the Revitalized Agreement between the key players in South Sudan’s long-running civil war has provided a framework for peace, the Head of the UN mission there, UNMISS, told the Security Council on Friday – “despite continued outbreaks of intercommunal violence”. 

UN Special Representative Nicholas Haysom said that although key provisions of the Agreement are set to end by February, the parties agreed in August on a Roadmap that extends the current transitional period by 24 months. 

While a welcome development, he reminded that “there is no alternative to the implementation of the peace agreement”. 

“Let me underscore that the roadmap is a way point, not an end point”, he said. 

Inclusive political process 

The UNMISS chief flagged the importance of an inclusive political process and the opening of civic spaces as “essential conditions” for a robust and competitive electoral process. 

He then outlined some steps underway – from President Salva Kiir and first Vice-President Riek Machar’s agreement to resolve the parliamentary impasse, to the graduation of the first class of joint armed forces recruits – for which budgetary resources, integration and deployment, are vital to allow a broader security sector transformation. 

“Failure to address these critical issues…have the potential to reverse the gains made,” Mr. Haysom warned. 

Violence continues 

He went on to describe violence on the regional level, marked by cycles of cattle raiding, abduction, and revenge killings along with fighting in Upper Nile state that has displaced thousands of people. 

The Special Representative reported that while conflict-related violence is also increasing, UNMISS continues to support prevention through policy frameworks and other areas. 

“The Mission is strengthening its support to the justice chain in each state…to address crimes that risk destabilizing the peace, including those involving gender-based violence,” he told the ambassadors. 

‘Double pivot’ 

Mr. Haysom said that UNMISS has managed to accomplish a “double pivot” in its focus and operations, by channeling resources towards the political process; proactive deployment to violent hotspots; and expanding its protection presence for civilians. 

He assured that South Sudan’s natural resources have “tremendous potential” for either conflict, or cooperation.  

“It is always political that can make the difference”. 

Turning to the humanitarian situation, he acknowledged that food security continues to deteriorate, leaving some 8.3 million people in need and outstripping available funding. 

Noting that the Humanitarian Response Plan is only 44.6 per cent funded, he urged donors to fulfil their pledges. 

‘Litmus test’ 

He asserted that the next few months would be “a litmus test” for the parties to demonstrate their commitment to the Roadmap, warning against “delays and setbacks”. 

In closing, the Special Representative reaffirmed the importance of the international community’s support. 

“Our collective task now is to support the parties in fulfilling their obligations to the people of South Sudan as per the timing of the Roadmap,” he concluded. 

Indispensable timelines 

Meanwhile, Lilian Riziq, President, South Sudan Women’s Empowerment Network discussed a broad-based and inclusive process for all key participants, underscoring the need for a new transitional governance process.  

She underscored that election timelines are indispensable, noting that four years on, levels of revitalized agreement implementation have not brought security or ended humanitarian misery. 

She also highlighted ways that precious oil revenues in South Sudan, have been heavily misused. 

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