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Call on G20 to Aim for Inclusive Growth, Reject Protectionism

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At the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2017, ministers of G20 countries called on members to continue on the path of inclusive growth, warning against protectionism. “If you want to get more inclusive growth, you need more free trade,” said Wolfgang Schäuble, Federal Minister of Finance of Germany, which holds the G20 presidency. Schäuble added that the G20 should be redoubling efforts to promote inclusive growth as part of free trade.

Nicolas Dujovne, Minister of Treasury of Argentina, said that, after being closed to international trade, his country will embrace globalization. “The new administration is opening the economy and wants to open up and receive the benefits of globalization to generate more inclusive growth,” he said, acknowledging that trying to avoid competition and openness is not good for Argentina. Argentina will take over the G20 presidency after Germany.

Mehmet Şimşek, Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey, said that protectionism is bad for global growth. He added that inclusive growth – a key focus of the 2015 Turkish G20 presidency – is important for creating jobs and reducing income inequality. “Evidence shows that inequalities constrain global growth,” he said. Despite a drop in the value of the Turkish lira, he reassured investors that the fundamentals are still there.

While too early to comment on the incoming US administration’s policies, Pravin Gordhan, Minister of Finance of South Africa, said that, he expects the US to continue to play a key role in enabling global growth and creating the right framework for inclusivity. “Collective determination can lift global growth and ensure all economies benefit at the right time,” he said.

Responding to a warning from Theresa May, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to not threaten Britain for leaving the European Union, Schäuble countered, “We don’t’ want to punish the UK [for Brexit].” He explained: “We’re not happy with the decision and I don’t think it’s good for the UK or Europe … We need to minimize the damage to the EU and UK.” Schäuble added: “If you want to make our economies stable, we all agree the direction is for more growth inclusiveness and sustainability.”

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Human Rights

COVID-19 stoking xenophobia, hate and exclusion, minority rights expert warns

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A woman wears a medical mask in China. (file photo) World Bank/Curt Carnemark

Combatting the COVID-19 pandemic must also include stamping out what one independent human rights expert has called the “darker sides” of the disease: verbal and physical attacks against Chinese and other minority communities, and excluding them from access to healthcare.

COVID-19 is not just a health issue; it can also be a virus that exacerbates xenophobia, hate and exclusion,” said Fernand de Varennes, the UN Special Rapporteur on minority issues, in a statement issued on Monday.

He reported that politicians and groups are exploiting fears surrounding the disease to scapegoat certain communities, leading to a rise in violence against them.

This has included physical attacks against Chinese and other Asians, hate speech blaming Roma and Hispanics for the spread of the virus, and calls by some political leaders for migrants to be denied access to medical services.

Safeguard human rights

Mr. de Varennes said countries need to show that the human rights of all people must be protected, particularly the most vulnerable and marginalized.

“Combatting the epidemic requires tackling its darker sides. Firm actions by States and all of us to safeguard the human rights of the most vulnerable and marginalised, including minorities, indigenous communities and migrants, are urgent and necessary”, he stressed.

More than 200 countries have reported cases of the new coronavirus disease, which first emerged in Wuhan, China, last December.

There were 638,146 cases globally as of Sunday, and more than 30,000 deaths, according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO).

“The coronavirus outbreak endangers the health of all of us, with no distinction as to language, religion or ethnicity. But some are more vulnerable than others”, said Mr. de Varennes.

He urged people everywhere to resist the rise in discriminatory and hate speech against Asian and other minorities by using the hashtag #IAmNotAVirus on social media.

Protect people in prisons, detention centres

Meanwhile, authorities are being urged to consider measures to mitigate COVID-19 risk in places such as prisons, immigration detention facilities, closed refugee camps and psychiatric institutions.

The UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture issued the advice on Monday, in a call to protect people deprived of their liberty during the pandemic.

“Governments have to take precautionary measures necessary to prevent the spread of infection, and to implement emergency measures to ensure detainees have access to appropriate levels of health care and to maintain contact with families and the outside world”, said Sir Malcolm Evans, the Committee Chairperson.

Measures include reducing prison populations by allowing early or temporary release of low-risk offenders, and extending the use of bail for all but the most serious cases.

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World Bank to Help Improve Business Environment and Justice Service Standards in Croatia

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The World Bank Board of Executive Directors today approved a loan to the Republic of Croatia for the Justice for Business Project in the amount of EUR 100 million (US$110.3 million equivalent) aimed at improving business regulatory procedures and justice service standards for businesses and citizens.

The project will support the implementation of reforms that will improve the country’s business environment and justice sector services under the leadership of the Ministry of Justice, in coordination with the Ministry of Economy, Entrepreneurship and Crafts and the Ministry of Construction and Physical Planning. A first set of activities will focus on reducing the administrative burden for companies to interact with government, focusing on removing regulatory barriers for firms to enter the market and operate and by simplifying dealing with construction permits and improving market functioning in the construction sector.

The project will also improve justice services. For example, the use of electronic services will be expanded to speed up response times and integrate case management systems across different courts. The Zagreb, Vinkovci, Kutina and Varazdin courthouses will be rehabilitated and upgraded for better court performance and user experience, and these transformational investments will help develop standard investment designs to be replicated across the country.

“Increasing the capacity of the state to swiftly respond to the needs of citizens and firms, particularly during these times of crisis, is especially important. Improved justice sector infrastructure and services will benefit both citizens and businesses. Businesses will benefit from having a simpler and more transparent way to interact with government agencies and faster and more responsive mechanisms to interact with the courts, and all citizens will benefit from more effective, efficient and reliable administration of justice and rule of law,” said Elisabetta Capannelli, World Bank Country Manager for Croatia and Slovenia. “In such a difficult time for Croatian citizens, caused by the multiple emergencies to the health system, the city of Zagreb and the economy, this project can also contribute to providing an economic and confidence boost to the country.”

In the past years, Croatia has made significant efforts to improve the country’s public sector performance, which is falling behind European Union (EU) averages across most governance, business environment and human capital indicators. While key government institutions, most notably the public administration and the judiciary, are still underperforming according to both EU and global benchmarks, the Government of Croatia is committed in its effort to modernization its administration.

Since joining the World Bank Group in 1993, Croatia has benefited from the World Bank’s financial and technical assistance, policy advice, and analytical services. To date, the World Bank has supported more than 50 operations amounting to around US$3.5 billion. The Bank’s current engagement focuses on transport, health, innovation, business environment, land administration, agriculture, economic development of the Slavonia regions and support for the preparation of the National Development Strategy. 

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Human Rights

Coronavirus pandemic threatens to plunge millions in Arab region into poverty and food insecurity

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Food insecurity is on the rise in Gaza as the COVID-19 pandemic threatens a steep spike in poverty throughout the Arab region. WFP/Wissam Nassar

COVID-19 will be responsible for pushing a further 8.3 million people in the Arab region into poverty, according to a new policy brief issued on Wednesday by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA).

And the pandemic could also bump up the number of undernourished people there by some two million. 

Current estimates show that there are some 101.4 million in the region who already live in poverty, according to official criteria, and around 52 million undernourished.

“The consequences of this crisis will be particularly severe on vulnerable groups”, said ESCWA Executive Secretary, Rola Dashti, pointing especially to “women and young adults, and those working in the informal sector who have no access to social protection and unemployment insurance”. 

Because of a high dependence on food imports within the Arab world, a disruption in global medical supplies to deal with the pandemic, will also have a severe impact on food security there, says ESCWA. 

Meanwhile, in addition to food loss and waste, worth around $60 billion annually across the region, the brief highlighted other likely economic losses, due to knock-on effects of the virus.

What action can be taken to lessen the impact?

According to ESCWA, reducing food loss and waste by 50 per cent would not only increase household income by some $20 billion, but also significantly improve food availability, reduce food imports and improve the balance of trade throughout the region.

Ms. Dashti encouraged Arab Governments to ensure “a swift emergency response to protect their people from falling into poverty and food insecurity owing to the impact of COVID-19”. 

Last week, she called for the establishment of a regional social solidarity fund to care for vulnerable countries. 

“The regional emergency response must support national efforts and mobilize resources and expertise to protect the poor and vulnerable”, concluded the Executive Secretary. 

At the same time, Khalid Abu-Ismail, Senior Economist at ESCWA, highlighted four measures that can be taken to mitigate the crisis, beginning with extending credit to small businesses and enterprises.

He also stressed the importance of building on social networks and expanding on cash and other transfers to the poor and vulnerable and encouraged countries to give “more access to the food insecure population” through the existing voucher system.
Mr. Abu-Ismail also highlighted the importance of other initiatives such as Arab Food Security Emergency Funds. 

As one of five UN regional commissions, ESCWA supports inclusive and sustainable economic and social development in Arab States and works on enhancing regional integration. 

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