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Ordubad: a Cradle of Religious Tolerance in the Caucasus

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Religious architecture in the region of Ordubad, Autonomous Republic of Nakhchivan (Azerbaijan), has established new paradigms in the shaping of Azerbaijani Islamic culture, interfaith dialogue, and has reflected a deep sense of conviction within its citizens and a unique enrichment of religious tolerance, cultural dialogue, and multicultural coexistence.

The Region of Ordubad is the symbol of a religious harmony, unique architectural treasures that enshrine the superior values of the architecture school founded by Ajami Ibn Abubakr Nakhchivani, the city displays to the world a great sense of Azerbaijani patriotism and is home of many beautiful mosques that ought to be visited by religious scholars, international university researchers and be given a special international status by UNESCO; during the upcoming commemorations that will take place in Nakhchivan in 2018, as this region of Azerbaijan will become the World’s capital of Islamic Culture and Art. The Region of Ordubad is known for its famous apricots that were exported regularly to Moscow and other parts of the Soviet Union; however its religious treasures, mosques and archeological sites are not well known internationally, they must acquire a wider presence abroad. The city of Ordubad has distinguished itself for having seven principal avenues, on each one of these avenues it has: a mosque without a minaret; an underground fresh water creek; traditional, rare Caucasian homes equipped with a main entrance door that has two types of ancient knocking metal rings that produce two different types of sounds (one of them is used by men and the other used by women). Some of the most important mosques in Ordubad region are: Dilbar Mosque, Dirnis Mosque, Haji Huseyngulu Mosque.

In Ordubad City is located Dilbar Mosque, a historical and architectural monument that provide some unique features to foreign visitors and theologians. In Ordubad City there are a number of buildings that embody special values of Nakhchivan architectural school and Dilbar Mosque is one of them. The mosque is open to the public for religious ceremonies. The structure is right angled, has a square shape and equipped with columns.   Many of the mosque’s features are a representation of Nakhchivan’s school of architecture. Dilbar Mosque is an example of an architectural composition that intertwines style and structure that was typical in the 1700s. This Mosque is furnished with its altar, latticed windows; the entrance gate is on its main façade. The main entrance and its sides have incorporated big windows and sections that are latticed, with asymmetric installation of the head span and other marvelous features. This uniqueness shows that Dilbar Mosque embodies a perfect harmony with Ordubad’s architecture and urban – rural landscape.

According to the history of Ordubad, preserved by its residents, Dilbar Mosque was built to honor a woman named Dilbar and it has emerged as a center of Islamic faith established to honor the valuable role of women in the Muslim faith and its emblematic communities across the Caucasus region.

Another religious landmark is Dirnis Mosque, located on Mirza Street in Yukhari, Dirnis Village, and Region of Ordubad. It has a large size and the local people call it with the name ‘Boyuk Masjid’ meaning a large Mosque (Jame Mosque). Its main entrance is from the western side and for women is on the east side. Its ceiling stands on five poles on each side, totaling ten poles or columns. In front of the East – North wall there was built a balcony on the first floor to host women. The Mosque has: three big windows in the east wall, two windows on the western wall; and three windows on the southern wall. According to the inscription located at the head of one of the columns, written in black color, it is very clear that the Mosque was repaired in 1920-1921 and it was Architect Hasan from Ordubad who had repaired this cultural monument. Once again, this religious monument was renovated in 1999 at the expense of the local people and a balcony had been assembled in front of the entrance door on the west side, where a minaret was also erected. According to its architectural features, the Dirnis Mosque was first built and erected in the XVII Century.

In the village of Ganza, Region of Ordubad, stands tall the historic Haji Huseyngulu Mosque, located right at the center of the village. Its size is 23 meters by 14 meters, according to the local community, this Mosque was built by Haji Huseyngulu, an influential man who was active in promoting various shapes and construction styles from the Ajami Nakhchivani Architecture School. When Haji Huseyngulu passed away, he was buried in front of the southern wall of this gorgeous creamy white-brick mosque. At a later stage, the renovation team of this Mosque placed a head stone above the tomb of Haji Huseyngulu, the words of the late “Haji Huseyngulu of the XVI century,” are carved in Arabic language, on the head stone. This is considered to be one of the oldest mosques of Nakhchivan and throughout Azerbaijan, it is a unique religious monument, inside it has a big hall. According to the local builders, in the beginning of the XX Century there was built an additional hall that was joined with the hallway of males that is located in the western part of the old Mosque. The old part of the mosque and its main hall sits on three big columns and walls built of stones.   Its inner-columns and its sections between the columns and walls are connected through a span shape and its walls reach one meter of thickness. Five wall recesses have been placed inside of the mosque. A balcony is in front of the entrance; its façade consists of 12 spans. Near the mosque there is a guest house, when this object was restored there were written colorful religion words on its limed walls.

During its restoration project a wonderful minaret was added to this cultural monument on the South Western side of the structure. On the minaret is written an inscription that says: “this minaret of the mosque was built by Haji Israfil Sadigli in 2000; architects Karbalayi Sayid, Karbalayi Gurban.”

There are always held mourning events and religious ceremonies during the months of Muharram and Ramadan that take place in this Mosque; certainly during the commemoration events of Nakhchivan Region becoming the World’s Capital of Islamic Culture in 2018, there will be taking place memorable events in the Haji Huseyngulu Mosque.

The area on the southern side of the mosque at one time belonged to Haji Huseyngulu who donated this land to be the Mosque’s cemetery. Based on the grave inscriptions of this cemetery it is ascertained that Haji Huseyngulu lived during the XV century and this Mosque was built in that time.

The 2018 World celebrations of Islamic Culture in Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic are approaching; foreign visitors, tourists and scholars must visit the Region of Ordubad in order to appreciate a series of unique architectural features tailored by Ajami Nakhchivani that are melted together with: an ancient Islamic Culture, attractive religious tolerance practices, deeply rooted historical awareness within the context of Azerbaijani historiography.

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Extra flavour and fraud prevention on the menu for Europe’s beer and wine industries

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BY DANIELA DE LORENZO

The debate over whether fermentation was a more important human discovery than fire will continue forever. In the meantime, with Europe as the world’s premier producer of wine and a significant manufacturer of beer, Horizon-backed scientists are researching ways to reinforce Europe’s competitiveness in the drinks industry.

In 2019, European Union wine sales were 16 billion litres with an export value close to € 20 billion, while beer production in the EU in 2020 amounted to 33.1 billion litres. Europe accounts for 63% of global wine production while the number of breweries in Europe now exceeds 11 000.

The wine sector has built its reputation and dominant market share based on quality but all the turmoil of recent years and the risks from climate change mean that the drinks industry cannot afford to stand still, especially with imported beverages becoming increasingly popular.

Enhancing beer and wine flavours through research into new yeast strains is one way the drinks industry is trying to keep ahead. At the other end of that, more secure supply chains are needed to ensure delivery of a quality product. This will help Europe’s drinks industry retain its market position.

Distinct aroma

Alcoholic flavours result from complex metabolic reactions performed by yeasts. A type of fungus that transforms sugars into alcohol during fermentation, yeasts also help to give each wine its distinct aroma and taste.

The Horizon-funded Aromagenesis project, led by the University of Dublin in Ireland, focused on understanding the genetics and biochemistry in yeast strains that are responsible for aromas and flavours in lager beers and wine.

‘The traditional wine and beer industry uses specific and limited numbers of yeast strains,’ said Ursula Bond, professor of microbiology at the University of Dublin. ‘We thought it was important to make a big survey of different wines’ and lagers’ yeasts and characterise them to see whether some already existing in nature have more favourable aroma and flavour.’

Aromagenesis, which finished researching in May this year, assessed whether science could help by varying the flavour profile of certain strains. Working with the drinks industry, through experiments, co-fermentation and hybridisation, the researchers were able to select new yeast strains.

They then created a bank of natural yeast that can produce different flavour compounds and in varying amounts. This led to a bounty of new yeast varieties and taste profiles.

Yeast palette

The new yeast palette is currently available to companies involved in the project. They include German brewer Erdinger Weissbräu and Canada-based Lallemand, who develop of yeasts for the global market.

‘We are now finishing the first trial fermentations in our experimental wineries,’ said Jose Heras, technical manager at Lallemand Oenology in Spain. Spain is Europe’s second largest exporter of wine with 27% of the market in 2019. The project will turn to the winery to ‘validate four of the hybrid yeast strains created for aromatic white wines,’ he said.

The drinks industry intends to put the yeast research to immediate effect with commercialisation of more flavourful Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo wines potentially starting in 2023, according to Heras.

Some consumers have reservations about genetically modified organism (GMO) products, so the research was conducted exclusively with non-genetically modified (GMO) yeasts. This will potentially broaden the appeal of the results within the drinks industry as a whole, according to Bond.

Aromagenesis research is published as a publicly available resource which could also end up benefiting many others in the drinks industry. 

‘Part of our research is open-source and our data will be published soon,’ said Bond. If a beer or wine producer wishes to avail itself of the new strains, it can make licensing agreements, she said.

Wine fraud

Alcohol ranks among Europe’s most counterfeited products. Unfortunately, the consumer appeal of such household names as Spanish Rioja, Portuguese Porto and Italian Prosecco, attracts the attention of criminal gangs seeking illicit profits. Wine fraud, where a cheaper product is passed off as a fine wine, is estimated at €1.3 billion annually, or around 3% of total sales.

At the moment, a wine label provides consumers with information about the origins and flavours of the product. However, it can’t enlighten them about the number of intermediaries between the vineyard and the shop or restaurant where it’s purchased.

The TRACEWINDU project, which began last year, has set out to change this.

The Horizon-backed project is focusing on a decentralised blockchain technology that, with a printed QR code, could register information about a wine bottle’s whole life cycle in a manner that is transparent.

Blockchain technology is familiar to users of so-called digital currencies such as bitcoin, because it promises security and traceability.

‘Wine producers are concerned about illicit trade, so we need to identify in an unambiguous way the origin of the wine,’ said Gustavo Pérez González, senior project manager at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona in Spain.

Tracewindu are also investigating the possibility of including information derived from analytical chemistry techniques in the QR code. These can be used to specify the unique features of a bottle of wine, such as the geographical location, providing a further guarantee of the contents.

Winemakers participating in the project also suggested tracking the temperature during transportation. This would help ensure that the wine hasn’t been degraded when it reaches its destination, creating improved consumer satisfaction.

Environmental goals

In line with the European Green Deal plans to reduce the use of pesticides and fertilisers, the project also has environmental goals.

‘We are now looking at ways to reinforce the immune system of grapevines and therefore reduce the need for additional chemicals,’ said Pérez González.

This resilience will be reflected in the label too. If it can be shown that the organic characteristics of the wine are not altered, this feature could add value by showing which winegrowers comply with European sustainability goals.

Pérez González also foresees a possible bottle-return system. This would require winemakers to commit to the QR coded and laser-printed bottles on a long-term basis – but it would align with the circular- economy objective of reusing food packaging rather than producing more of it. This would lead to job-creation in the traceability, distribution and logistics sectors.

Research in this article was funded via the EU and it was originally published in Horizon, the EU Research and Innovation Magazine. 

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Discover Unexpected Adventures at These Unique Beach Locales

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DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Racine Harbourwalk

Those hoping to hear waves crashing and feel sand beneath their toes are naturally drawn to coastal hotspots such as Miami and Waikiki. While these destinations no doubt offer a chance to unwind and relax in a sun-soaked setting, they aren’t the only beachfront vacation spots worthy of exploration. 

From marveling at towering redwoods to floating in delightfully clean freshwater, spotting harbor seals or fishing from a downtown pier, these beach locales offer unexpected opportunities for waterfront adventure.

Embrace Clean, Accessible Waters

When planning a beachy getaway, don’t overlook the salt-free waters of the Great Lakes. Nestled along the Lake Michigan shore, Racine offers a bounty of sandy beaches in a setting brimming with Midwestern hospitality and charm. Be sure to check out Wind Point Lighthouse, one of the oldest and tallest active lighthouses on the Great Lakes, and sunbathe on North Beach, Wisconsin’s first Certified Blue Wave clean beach. Not only is this freshwater playground free from pollutants, but it also offers a Mobi Mat, a non-slip mat that allows persons with disabilities to enjoy the beach.

When it comes time to settle in for the night, stroll on over to the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Racine Harbourwalk. The hotel’s harbor front location offers the chance to take in lake views from your room, or while sipping a cocktail in the hot tub!

ATV Over Sand Dunes

California has more than its fair share of well-known beach towns, and while you may find crowds flocking to southern hotspots like Santa Monica and Laguna Beach, consider heading north instead to the wetlands of Arcata Bay. Located just a half-hour away from Redwoods National Park, home to the tallest trees on earth, Arcata offers epic birdwatching opportunities, making it an ideal spot for nature lovers to explore. But thrill seekers will also find plenty to love at the Samoa Dunes Recreation Area, a sandy off-highway vehicle play area where you can go for a thrill ride in an ATV or other off-road vehicle for a wild, wind-swept adventure!

Cruise down the scenic Pacific Coast Highway, check out even more redwoods at the Arcata Community Forest, take in live music in downtown Arcata, then settle into your room at the ideally located Hampton Inn & Suites by Hilton Arcata.

Stroll a Tree-Lined Bayfront Trail

The original commercial pier in the alluring town of Fairhope now serves as the city’s town square. Designed for both strolling and fishing, the pier offers sweeping views of Mobile Bay. From here it’s an easy walk to North Beach Park and the Beach Park Tree Trail, which contains nearly 500 species of trees. The town’s easygoing vibe makes it a picture-perfect setting for a waterfront getaway.

Downtown Fairhope boasts a delightful array of boutique shopping, restaurants, and street markets. Stay within walking distance of them all at the Hampton Inn by Hilton Fairhope-Mobile Bay, which is situated across the street from the exhibits at Fairhope Museum of History.

Soak up Harbor Views from a Hammock

A vacation to the “Great White North” might evoke images of snowy tundra and thick parkas, but the coastal Canadian town of Halifax offers a mix of sandy beaches for sunbathing and boating excursions that provide opportunities to spot whales in the wild. The city’s Harbourwalk is one of the world’s longest continuous boardwalks, dotted with brightly colored orange hammocks that make for ideal seating for taking in the sweeping water views and gentle breezes. As you explore the area, keep an eye out for harbor seals and jellyfish at high tide, and clusters of white barnacles and black mussels at low tide. 

In downtown Halifax you’ll find street art, museums, gardens, parks, playgrounds, shopping, entertainment, and waterfront restaurants teeming with the day’s fresh catch. Located in the heart of it all is The Hollis Halifax – a DoubleTree Suites by Hilton Hotel, which also offers an indoor pool should you crave a swim in temperature-controlled waters.

Experience Coastal California as it Once Was

Nestled between popular Santa Barbara and Malibu you’ll find the town of Oxnard, which serves as the gateway to the Channel Islands. Accessible only by boat, and protected by national park status, the Channel Islands offer a truly natural look at coastal California. The largest of the islands, Santa Cruz Island, features steep cliffs, large sea caves, coves, sandy beaches, and the chance to view local wildlife.

After catching a boat back to the Oxnard visitor’s center, check into the soon-to-be reimagined Zachari Dunes on Mandalay Beach, Curio Collection by Hilton. Guests of this Spanish Hacienda-style oceanfront resort can pack light and enjoy a wide range of amenities, from longboards and hoverboards to craft coffee and cocktails, while savoring a luxe environment in which to unwind after days filled with exploration. 

Regardless of where your travels take you, keep in mind that Hilton Honors members can earn up to 5,000 Points and save on qualifying car rentals from Alamo, Enterprise and National. And if you rent a car for five or more days between Aug. 15, 2022 and Oct. 5, 2022, you’ll receive 1,000 Bonus Points on top of the Points you already earn. 

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A dream getaway at Rokeby Manor, Mussoorie

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Dreams are beautiful and it’s even more beautiful when reality is better than a dream. Mussoorie is a beautiful Himalayan destination in North India. Often called the Queen of Hills, it attracts travellers from afar. Rokeby Manor is a quaint place in Mussoorie and hands down my favourite place to stay. 

Rokeby Manor is a mandatory annual trip that I make every year, ever since I got introduced to the property. Here are some things that I absolutely love about the place. 

It’s located in Landour Cantt – Landour Cantt is even above Mussoorie in terms of height above sea level. We get the best sunset views from the spots around Landour. More than anything else, it’s cut off from the noise and bustle of Mall Road offering a truly serene getaway for those looking for some peace and genuine connection. I’m not a big lover of noise or crowds so Rokeby Manor is definitely my favourite choice of place to stay. 

Landour Bakehouse is at a walking distance – Rokeby Manor infact owns and runs the mysterious Landour bakehouse with its wonderful desserts and baked goodies. Be it their cinnamon rolls or cheese croissants or the beautiful Himalayan views, Landour Bakehouse attracts people from Dehradun all the way only for their breakfast. Can you believe it? People drive up almost two hours just to grab breakfast here and go back home! Honestly, I traveled all the way from Mumbai for their cinnamon rolls. 

The rooms are rustic and homely – Mussoorie has grown over the years and it’s charm has attracted many commercial hotels. However, none of them present an authentic rustic Himalayan feel. There is nothing like Rokeby Manor with its rustic rooms, homely feel, direct views of the Himalayas and the most beautiful sunset in all of Mussoorie. 

There are meaningful quotes painted on their walls – In life, we search for meaning. No better place to find meaning than Rokeby Manor’s walls with the hard hitting quotes about life that make you realise how important it is to connect with yourself. I truly felt connected with myself when I was there. It was almost like I was surrounded by signs telling me to live in the moment and connect with people I was close to deeply. 

Beautiful views of the winterline – Mussoorie is one of the only places in the world from where one can see the Winterline, a false horizon that’s created during sunset time. I’ve seen stunning Winterline views from Rokeby Manor while sitting in their tea garden. I watched magic in the mountains right in front of me. The mountains were mysterious and I felt like something beautiful was unfolding before me. 

Every room has something special – On holidays, I want to feel special. Rokeby Manor has something special for everyone in the rooms. No two rooms are designed the same way. One room had beautiful views of night sky, the other is facing the tea garden and the rhododendrons, there’s one with a focus on other flowers. Each room is designed uniquely. What’s even better is that they have rooms for families and solo travellers too, basically no matter who you are, you’ll find a place here. 

The food is some of the best I have ever had – Emily’s is a famous restaurant at Rokeby Manor Mussoorie. Their food is some of the best I’ve ever had. With overlooking views of the Himalayas and Dehradun city, the food at Emily’s tastes even better. Much like Landour Bakehouse, people come to Emily’s from distances afar! 

The stunning Char Dukan walk goes around here – There’s a road diverging in the woods from Char Dukan that leads around Victor Banerjee’s house, crosses a church and some rustic homes. This route is often traversed by locals who want to explore the woods and find peace. The sunrise view from here is stunning because during sunrise the clear sky leads a view to the snow capped peaks of the Himalayas (ones generally hidden because of clouds in the sky during normal hours of the day). When you’re at Rokeby, you’ll have the privilege to explore this path. 

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