At the outset, USA and China are big economic powers enjoying UN veto status while India and Pakistan are third world countries with a conflict over an alien Kashmir and seeking the support of veto members to justify their individual positions over Kashmir. As they try ot influence USA and China, the South Asian nuclear powers are obviously being misused by the veto powers for their own advantages.
India remains the major threat to Pakistan, an ally of NATO to target Muslims and insult Islam. Having lost the support of USA which now tries to oblige India to get its Asia Pivot agenda to contain China, Pakistan has long shifted its focus on China, seeking long-term strategic framework agreement between them as long as possible for enhancing defence and security cooperation.
The division of South Asia into a Muslim Pakistan and a Hindu India has served as a mechanism for maintaining US imperialist domination of the whole region. India has suppressed and attacked Muslims, even denying their legitimate rights, the way it wants and incite communalism and nationalism so as to deflect social anger over the failure of criminalized capitalism. Of course the rich thrives in both Pakistan and India as elsewhere in the region. Now this explosive conflict is becoming ever more inextricably intertwined with the confrontation between US and China, adding to each a massive new incendiary charge.
USA has converted Pakistan into an unstable of client state to serve only exclusive US interests.
Balochistan is critical to the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a massive infrastructure connectivity project, which Beijing is supporting with $46 billion in investments. At the heart of the CPEC is the building of a network of pipeline, rail, and road links connecting Balochistan’s Arabian Sea port of Gwadar with western China.
When Modi assumed office in May 2014, he made a show of seeking closer ties with Pakistan and relaunching the long-stalled India-Pakistan “comprehensive peace dialogue.” Modi said was intent on changing the “rules of the game” with Pakistan. But it quickly emerged that as part of his government’s more assertive pursuit of India’s great power ambitions to showcase to the west its hold over the region, including Pakistan and Bangladesh. Pakistan saw through Indian new game as Modi instructed Indian military commanders to take a more aggressive stance in cross-border firing incidents along the disputed Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir, leading in 2015 to the most serious military clashes in a decade.
India’s increased aggressiveness towards Islamabad is being fuelled by the military-strategic boost it is receiving from USA which has elevated India to the status of “Major Defense Partner,” and has begun co-developing weapons-systems with India, is actively supporting India in increasing economic and strategic ties with East Asia and Africa, and is trying – at least as a mere show – to gain it admittance to the Nuclear Suppliers Group in defiance of the current rules. Both USA and India failed badly and is angry with China. And all shuttle diplomatic encounters Modi made across the globe also failed, wasting Indian tax money. India considers everything at par cricket where batboys get 100s and 50s as per game rule conventions.
Even though “cooperation’ has not worked in its favor, India still does not want to lose its image of being a US strategic ally though meant only for some little benefits. Without US companionship India might feel depressed as it loses advantages with Pakistan. But Washington is harnessing India to its predatory global agenda and transforming it into a “frontline state” in its confrontation with China. Last month, New Delhi signed an India-US Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) that gives US combat planes and warships and their personnel routine access to Indian military bases for resupply, repairs and rest.
The USA has in recent months curtailed both economic and military aid to Pakistan. The US Congress also scuttled a deal to sell Pakistan F-16 fighter jets. Further heightening Islamabad’s strategic anxiety is the relentless pressure from Washington for Pakistan to bear still more of the burden in the Afghan War, although large parts of the country have already been transformed into killing fields.
All of this has made Indian government more confident in pursuing a hard line against Islamabad. By using the US tone, the Modi government asked PM Sharif to do more on “cross border terrorism”- a usual Indian fun to mock at Pakistan.
For decades, Pakistan was Washington’s principal partner in South Asia, playing a significant role in the US’s Cold War intrigues against the Soviet Union, and in return receiving substantial military aid. Now, Washington cavalierly dismisses Islamabad’s warnings that American patronage of India has destabilized South Asia and is fuelling a nuclear-arms race. Pakistan is certainly concerned about Indian interference with US-Pakistan relations and alarmed at the dramatic downgrading of its strategic partnership with US led NATO imperialism.
India has repeatedly stated its opposition to the CPEC, citing the fact that the corridor will pass through Pakistan-held Kashmir—territory now suddenly India claims is rightfully its. Indian PM Modi among other top leaders when they met privately with Chinese President Xi last weekend, have repeatedly told Beijing that they consider the CPEC a threat to India’s core strategic interests. China ignores Indian tricks and goes ahead with its costly project that, in the long runs, benefits Beijing more than Pakistan. India therefore got into US trap of Asia Pivot and has integrated itself ever more completely into the US strategic offensive against China.
Pakistan, by contrast, has reacted to the Indian campaign against the CPEC with bellicose threats. Army Chief General Raheel Sharif warned of “conspiracies” against Pakistan by its “enemies” and vowed “fool proof security to CPEC.” He disclosed that the military would soon form a special “security division” in Balochistan to protect the CPEC, just as it has already done in the country’s north where it helps the NATO agenda of clearing lands for oil-gas transportation. .
Meanwhile, China hopes India can be dissuaded from becoming the fourth partner in a NATO-type anti-China alliance that would be led by Washington and include its principal Asian-Pacific allies, Japan and Australia.
Pakistan no more expects its terror ally USA to help get Kashmir from Indian brute occupation so that it can add first add it to Azad Kashmir under its non-brutal control before eventually able to make it a part of Pakistani territories and its Constitution.
Pakistan must now know that India would never use its nuclear abled missiles targeting Pakistan because Pakistan would also reciprocate the same manner target India. So, nukes are just a useless shield to deny India chances of outmaneuver its neighbor. In fact no country today can afford to use nukes aiming at destroying another country simply because it could also be targeted.
Trying to outsmart one another and claim “win” situation in propaganda theatrics, relations between South Asia’s rival nuclear-armed powers India and Pakistan remain heated, accusing each other of promoting terrorism and exchanging bellicose threats.
USA has been seeking and maybe pressing India to go for a brief war with China so that it can do the “the rest” but India has not yet been willing to take the call. In fact, India has been avoiding any battle with Asian giant because it cannot win it but can only weaken itself. NEW Delhi played its card well by not militarily responding to the Chinese incursions into Arunachal Pradesh because once it does that very soon it would be pushed into a surrender situation wherein USA would certainly have the upper hand to dictate its terms to India as it would lose all advantages. .
Pakistan’s over stretch towards Beijing has made USA somewhat nervous and even depressed and is pinning its hopes on India to succeed in its Asia Pivot.
Under conditions where the US has overturned the balance of power in the region through its aggressive campaign to harness India to its anti-China “Pivot,” the danger of the India-Pakistan tensions climaxing in war, whether by design or miscalculation, is rapidly rising. A possible clash between India and Pakistan threatens to rapidly draw in the USA and China on opposed sides.USA badly wants a war in South Asia and China has been avoiding strengthening US foothold in the region.
India wants every country in the region to bend to New Delhi’s demands that they accept Indian regional dominance as new reality and work for Indian causes like entire world is working for US advancing its interests globally. Except Islamabad, all countries seem to have taken India as their regional boss and never question its state terror action in Kashmir, reducing Muslim population by perpetual fake encounters.
India has accelerated its anti-Pakistan tirade in international summits, forcefully blaming Pakistan in. the G-20 summit in China and then repeated later in the week at an ASEAN-India Summit, that “one single nation” in South Asia is spreading terrorism. For its part, Pakistan has repeatedly pointed to India’s Balochistan campaign as corroboration of its charges that Indian intelligence is providing aid and arms to the Balochi insurgency. the Pakistan Foreign Ministry issued a statement that declared: India is that “single nation”; “India is financing terrorism in Pakistan and open evidences are available on its involvement in subversive activities.”
In fact, the regional nations take full economic advantages out of Indian leadership crisis from India and since these weak countries get economic support from New Delhi they have no reasons to criticize Indian brutalities in Kashmir. In fact, media in South and West Asia have long stopped criticizing New Delhi’s regular genocides in Kashmir. .Instead, they try and find reasons to praise New Delhi and its economy.
Knowing well the US mindset against Islam and Muslims, India now does not fear any opposition from world powers to its crimes in Kashmiris. In fact both India and its military-intelligence ally Israel enjoy the courtship of the western imperialist powers.
Even while pushing for its regional dominance as an economic power of South Asia, India can do nothing against China or USA in diluting their intentions in the region. So it turns its sward toward Pakistan destabilized by its NATO allies led by USA. In r order to counter Pakistani criticism of Indian state terror violence in Kashmir, killing Muslims in a sustained manner, .New Delhi has ratcheted up tensions with repeated denunciations of Islamabad for “human rights abuses” in Balochistan, where Pakistan’s military is fighting a “dirty war” against an “insurgency”, thereby launching an unprecedented intervention into Pakistan’s internal affairs. They were widely understood in both India and Pakistan as constituting an implicit threat that New Delhi will press for the dismemberment of Pakistan if Islamabad does not curb its support for the freedom struggle of Kashmiris in Indian-held Kashmir.
Today, Jammu Kashmir has been divided among India, Pakistan and China. These three occupier nations do not want to surrender the stolen lands from Kashmiris on their military strength. .
India has a simple message to Pakistan: it wants Pakistan to mind its “business” and enjoy its part of Azad Kashmir and stop meddling in “Indian” Kashmir which lies at the top Indian map and therefore it does not want to lose it to Pakistan and lose the physiologic war being waged for decades. Without Kashmir, New Delhi’s strategic community thinks, Indian map looks like a man without head. India, therefore, does not want to lose its head annexed from neighbor.
Significantly, Pakistan responded to last month’s agreement opening Indian bases to the US military by expressing concern that the Indian action would contribute to “polarising the region by disturbing the strategic balance in South Asia and escalating the arms build-up.” The term “polarizing the region” perhaps was clearly a reference to the hardening of a US-Indian alliance on the one side and a China-Pakistan alliance on the other. One has no clues as to the real reasons for the emerging -US alliance and China-Pakistan alliance
Apparently, the logic of its relentless US campaign to isolate, strategically encircle, and prepare for war against China and of its push to make India its own main strategic partner in South Asia and a frontline state in its anti-China offensive is a well knit plan of veto members to push Islamabad and Beijing into each other’s strategic embrace.
That is a major strategy of all maneuvers of veto members (and possibly Israel) that jointly control the world and its regional resources.
Pakistan and Germany are keen to Sustain Multifaceted and Mutually beneficial Cooperation
Pakistan has varied history of relationship and cooperation with other countries in international arena. Despite of proactive foreign policy Pakistan has been struggling to acquire global or regional status as a major power. Now in the age of globalization, the foreign relations between states have become more significant than before. Global and regional organizations, societies, economic zones and countries have network to attract and develop relationship among them. A major goal of Pakistan’s foreign policy is to develop good relations with international community and to handle global and regional issues. Activism of Pakistan‘s foreign policy reflects on the domestic socio-economic development. The national interest of Pakistan also support to regulate inputs from the external atmosphere into internal situation and to strive security and territorial integrity in the region and glob which always remained top concern of Pakistan. As bearing geo-strategic position, Pakistan seeks good relations with regional and global powers like America, China and European Union. Within European Union Germany has emergence as the developed economy in Europe. It is not only playing vital role within European Union but at the global level. Pakistan is also enjoying cordial relations with Germany on the base of common interest and perception on all international issues. Germany is also very keen to see sustainable development in Pakistan and acknowledges that the Pakistan is playing constructive role for regional peace. Germany greatly values Pakistan intense to strengthen multifaceted and mutual beneficial cooperation. Both the countries have been engaged on political, economic and socio-cultural partnership.
In past, East and West Germany had tilted towards forming alliance with India in 1950s but in 1960s, President Ayob Khan‘s visit to West Germany established economic relation between both the countries. Post Pak-India war 1971, East Germany was the first country of the Europe who recognized Bangladesh. During 1990s, Pakistan and Germany established Pakistan German Business Forum and Germany had become the fourth largest trade partner of Pakistan in 2000. Germany also was ally of Pakistan in the war against terrorism in the north-west part of the country. Since the last few years, both the countries developed trade relations as well as Germany invested in the field of science and technology in Pakistan. On August 24, 2014, Germany built Pakistan Gate in Berlin to provide business and trade facilities to the businessmen of both the countries.
In November 2018, Pakistan offered Germany to join CPEC and to invest in the Special Economic Zone (SEZs). The mutual trade between both the countries enhanced to 3.0 billion euro in 2019.In 2021, Both Pakistan and Germany are celebrating 70th anniversary of establishment of bilateral relationship. Both the countries are planning to undertake several activities in this regard. Last month German Ambassador visited Karachi Chamber of Commerce and industries to call German companies, entrepreneurs and investors to earn from the potential and opportunities which are available in Pakistan and to bring business communities of both the countries more closer as well. Foreign minister of Pakistan has visited to Germany and meeting with business and members of Pakistani community. The foreign Minister held meetings with the leadership of Germany and repeated the desire of expansion of bilateral economic activities and exchange of technology. Both sides also discussed rapidly changing situation of Afghanistan and South Asian region. During the discussion, Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi and Foreign Minister of Germany Heiko Mass, Pakistan and Germany agreed to review the entire gamut of Pakistan-Germany relationship and tools of further deep bilateral cooperation in the field of trade, investment security and defense, health, education, tourism. The mass of both the countries want to utilize the potential of good relationship but it is observed that both sides have lack of political hierarchy, dedication and sincerity in past. The development and expansion of bilateral relationship lies on the path of peaceful coexistence and serious changes in the socio-economic structure is needed. Peace process with the neighboring countries like Afghanistan and India may attract Germany to invest in CPEC projects and other local project of education, vocational training, dam construction, tourism and economic activities in Pakistan. There is a need to organize a forum for the students and scholars of both the countries could interact and exchange their expertise for academic, economic and technology growth. There is potential of people to people interaction and development of cooperation between Pakistan and Germany. Pakistan may be more benefit from the relationship with Germany if the serious efforts be made on government level.
Modi’s Illiberal Majoritarian Democracy: a Question Mark on the Future of Indian Minorities
The word majoritarian is an adjective which relates to or constitutes a majority, majoritarian politics, or majoritarian democracy. It can be defined as a traditional political idea, philosophy or a practice according to which any decision whether political, social, or economic of an organized society should be made by a numerical majority of that society or it can be defined as a traditional political philosophy that stresses that a majority usually branded by religious, language, social class that also includes other recognizing factors of individuals in a society are subject to a level of superiority in a society because of which they have a say in every affair of a society. The concept of majoritarian dispensation in India under Narendra Modi has deep links with four other political philosophies i.e. Populism, Nationalism, Authoritarianism, and Sultanism. Before exploring Narendra Modi’s majoritarian policy of governance in India and its effects on the future of Indian minorities, I will first uncover the link of majoritarianism to political philosophies as mentioned.
A majoritarian leader is actually a populist leader who works hard for the concerns of people that who thinks are being ignored by the established elite groups in a society, and who always present himself as a new man mostly of a modest and plebeian background against old political establishment, in spite of the fact that who is a seasoned political figure, but usually not centre stage. This is exactly what Narendra Modi is, because in his 2014 election campaign, he presented himself as a new man against the Ghandi’s family’s old political system despite the fact he was CM Gujrat at that time. He also presented himself as someone who belongs to a very plebeian background that he had to work in his father’s tea shop when he was a child. Whereas, nationalism is a political idea or a philosophy that promotes and protects the interests of a particular nation, nationalism is the bedrock of most of the populists and NarendraModi is no exception. NarendraModi is a majoritarian national-populist leader who since his childhood has been the member of RSS, and now is a full time pracharak of RSS ideology that stresses that Hindu are the true and only sons of this Indian soil.
Majoritarian national- populist leaders like Narendra Modi are basically authoritarian leaders who reject political pluralism, and this is exactly what Modi is doing in India.Modi and the BJP has made it clear that no other party should compete with it, or is even needed, as indicative from its slogan of a ‘Congress Mukt Bharat’ (a Congress-free India).Whereas, Sultanism is a form of authoritarian government and according to Max Weber NarendraModi is a new sultan of India who is pushing India towards illiberal democracy by rejecting all kind of civil liberties particularly of Indian Muslim minority.
Modi’s majoritarian policy of governance in India is basically the promotion of majoritarian democracy that asserts Hindus a special and superior status in India because they constitute 80.5% of total Indian population and that this majoritarian policy protests Hindutva ideology that stresses that Hindus are the only sons of this soil and that strengthen the Hindu community. This majoritarian democracy is a big question mark on India as the world biggest liberal democracy because continuous violence, rejection of civil liberties, and crimes against the minorities that are Muslims, Sikhs, and Christians have been on the increase. About 1.8 million people who are minority communities are tortured in police custody every year. The word murder of minorities has been replaced by the term encounter killings. Torture have increased to such a huge extent that it questions the credibility of the rule of law and criminal justice. Hindu nationalists are revolting all around India especially against Muslims because they are the largest minority in India constituting 13.4% of total population and because Hindus have resentment toward their religion, Christians and Sikhs are no exception to their violence because they too constitute 2.3% and 1.9% of total Indian population.
Unfortunately, India under Narendra Modi is crawling from the world’s biggest liberal democracy to illiberal majoritarian democracy which is promoting and safeguarding only Hindu’s civil rights and liberties and that which is negating minority’s civil liberties and civil rights especially rights and liberties of Muslims of India. One such example of this is the Citizenship Amendment Bill (CAB).Under the act, for the first time in India, religion is a basis for granting citizenship. According to some this citizenship amendment bill by BJP is an intentional act in order to marginalize Muslims from mainstream politics. In addition to this, Muslims are not only being tortured at their religious places for their religious affiliations, but they are also being tortured at their educational institutions which is evident from a video of 15 December 2020, where Delhi police brutally tortured Muslims students of Jamia Millia Islamia university.
Keeping in mind Narendra Modi’s illiberal majoritarian democracy, the future of liberal democracy or pluralistic India appears to be gloomy, where the future of Indian minorities especially Muslims is a big question mark.
CoVID-19 Control: Can Pakistan Learn From China?
It has been over a year since the first case of CoVID-19 was confirmed in Pakistan. The tally has reached 721,018 confirmed cases, 15,443 have died and 4,143 critical cases by 11thApril2021. Across many countries, since January 2020, a massive surge of research into CoVID-19 had enabled the scientific and medical community to better understand how to manage and eliminate the virus through public health interventions. Today, we have learned, CoVID-19 causes acute symptoms and death. We have learned, immunity lasts at least eight months and we also have five licensed vaccines. We have learned, the long-term effects of CoVID-19 and the morbidity attached to having this virus. We have learned, virus transmission occurs through droplets and aerosols spread through coughing, sneezing, breathing and speaking. We also have learned, stopping the spread of CoVID-19 requires people to avoid mixing though restrictions on social life. We have learned, the virus can mutate into various strains that can be more transmissible – and we also have understand cat-and-mouse game between vaccine and variants.
To alleviate the destructive effects of CoVID-19 on the economy, Pakistan has sought debt relief of slightly around $2 billion from its G20 creditors. In addition to the G20 countries, China was the largest bilateral creditor with $9 billion, followed by Japan with $5 billion. By early April 2020, when there were just about 2,000 CoVID-19 positive cases in Pakistan, the World Bank approved $200 million package to help Pakistan. Likewise, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) had approved the payout of $1.386 billion as financial support to Pakistan to meet its urgent balance of payment needs halting from the CoVID-19 outbreak. Further, to support Pakistan’s public health response to the CoVID-19 and allow to meet the basic needs of the vulnerable and poor segment of society, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approved $500 million emergency assistance loan to Pakistan. Similarly, The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) also provided a $650 million financial package to support Pakistan in its efforts against the CoVID-19. All these grants were provided to Government of Pakistan to assist in effective and timely action in response to the spread of the CoVID-19. The objective was to strengthen Pakistan’s public health infrastructure and to alleviate socioeconomic disruptions due to the pandemic. Despite huge grants and substantial endowments, Pakistan’s response to the CoVID-19 has been unsatisfactory. Lack of basic healthcare infrastructure, disease surveillance and management system, and inconsistent implementation of policies and SOPs resulted in the rapid and incessant spread of third-wave of CoVID-19 throughout the county.
China’s extraordinary organized and preventive risk management approach, established on coalition between government officials, virologists, epidemiologists and public health experts, has demonstrated to be successful in containing and controlling CoVID-19.The experience in China emphasized the significance of listening to science and public health experts during pandemic event. Firstly, China’s response demonstrates the value of national research and public health capability. Huge investment in research and development rendered China much better prepared for CoVID-19. China’s experience indicates the value of investing in national health and research scheme to boost laboratory capacity along with workforce. They are essential to a rapid and effective national response to health emergencies and to national health security. Secondly, a strong foundation of research and development cannot ensure effective control without powerful top-level political dedication to use science to confront the outbreak. Government and leaders must respect science, understand its significance, and act on science-based advice in a way that is best for society. Thirdly, attaining speedy and successful implementation of control measures for CoVID-19 requires extensive community engagement. Public solidarity during the CoVID-19 outbreak in China had been unprecedented. Control measures that could sacrifice personal freedom were accepted readily by the nation.
To be brief, cricket is to South Asia and football is to Europe. In fighting CoVID-19, everyone is equal. Everyone has the identical liability and shares the equal threat. The effective implementation of prevention and control measures in China is a model for Pakistan other parts of world to follow. From the beginning, a science-based, risk-informed and phased approach was taken, with a clear appreciation and enthusiasm. Today, China has restarted its economy, reopened and almost returned to normality. The key of success story is to make everybody responsible, get every single division involved and held executives accountable. These are the most prominent lessons Pakistan could learn from China at national and local levels. After the failure of “Smart-Lockdown” strategy, Pakistan needs to choose a strict strategy, should follow the example of China and continue the lockdown until the number of CoVID-19 infections is brought close to zero; the strategy should then be to maintain infection rates at very low level until vaccination is done. China’s epidemic management provides an important experience from which countries such as Pakistan can learn. This applies in particular to Pakistan, which would risk to lose many of its achievements in case of a severe third wave of the epidemic. Government of Pakistan should involve not only public health experts, virologists and epidemiologists, but also scientist and respect science advice when making any decision that is required to keep the epidemic under control. The rest of the world can also learn from China’s success in bringing outbreak under control.
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