“Nothing brings me more happiness than trying to help the most vulnerable people in society. It is a goal and an essential part of my life – a kind of destiny. Whoever is in distress can call on me. I will come running wherever they are”. – Princess Diana
The article 2 of the Constitution of The International Women’s Club of Moscow says, “The purpose of the Club is to promote friendship and to further cultural activities among women of all nationalities residing in Moscow and to raise funds to be donated to charitable activities.”
The International Women’s Club of Moscow was established in 1978, when the world was different. The international community, residing in Moscow, had limited mobility by Russia and contacting to other countries in Soviet times. There were only several buildings in Moscow allocated for the diplomatic community. Local people did not have any contacts with international community apart of some departments of the Ministry of Foreign. Adaption for Russian culture and traditions took much more time for international community than now. In the basis of the club was the idea of Delmar Fall, wife of a Consul of the British Embassy, she wanted to create a club for women of all nationalities residing in USSR, to promote friendship and cultural activities. The first meeting dedicated as a cultural exchange was organized by the wife of Consul Ambassador of the Embassy of the Republic of India, Devika Teja. The first charter of the Club was written by the wife of a Consul of the Embassy of Liberia that had been studying law at university. That fact raised deliberate attention of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of USSR, which expressed its concerns about the danger of this association. The leaders of the club have constantly emphasized their status as an international organization, potentially not dangerous to the Soviet government, because the purpose and objectives of the club were focused on the cultural sector.
According to the memoirs of Alla Semenova, the former head of the Protocol Department of the Main Directorate of the diplomatic service, the first organization of joint trips and excursions of the Club, which are now one of the components of the club, was held under the auspices of trips of the Indian Embassy employees and their families. It was not possible to do in another way. That time was set up the tradition of holding meetings in the Embassy, at that time in the USSR there were little more than 100 Embassies. Every Embassy tried give cultural tinge of their country to each meeting, they organized demonstration of national clothes, taught handicraft production and national cuisine. Also there were organized interest groups to study the Russian language, culture and literature. In 1986, the Club consisted of more than 300 participants and there were organized 23 interest groups (Russian and foreign languages, literature and art, national dances and music, etc.).
The wives of prominent politicians of the Soviet Union including Nanuli Shevardnadze, wife of the Minister of foreign Affairs of the USSR, later first President of Georgia, attended in the Club’s meetings.
On December 1987 the meeting of the club was held at the Embassy of Sweden, where in addition to the traditional performance of the host country, was organized Bazaar, where one could buy products of national creativity of different countries. In 1988 there was a proposal to hold the first Winter Bazaar, which was the first charity event of the club. The first Winter Bazaar was held on December 1988 in the U.S. Embassy, all proceeds were donated to the government of Armenia, which suffered after devastating earthquake in 1988. Winter Bazaar 1989 was held at the Embassy of Sweden, where for the first time there was a lottery, all proceeds were donated to the Children’s Fund.
Perestroika and the collapse of the Soviet Union gave a great opportunity for the development of the Club. The result of these changes was the new version of the Constitution of the Club in 2000, where article 2 was the amended, which describes the main point of creation and existence of the club since 1978. The collapse of the USSR opened up new possibilities for Russian women who wanted to help other people. Now the percentage of Russian citizens is 5% of the total number of members, the international community represented in the club not only by wives of the diplomatic circles, but also by representatives of international business, who moved to Russia.
The International women’s club is focused at Charity projects, raising funds and interest groups.
Currently in the club there are about 50 interest groups that provide to members a wide range of creativity. The main areas of creativity and self-realization are: art, foreign languages, Russian language, cooking classes, music and dance, as well as a wide range of activities for body and soul, such as yoga, discussion club, nonverbal communication and the study of the Bible. The tradition of the club, founded in 1978, is the common tourist trips and excursions in Russia and in other countries. International Women’s Club gives the opportunity every day at any time of the year to develop your talent, make new discoveries, to learn the culture of other countries and meet different people.
In the early 1990s the charity group, which consisted of volunteers, visited several orphan homes. Club activities were limited by the government and charity organizations, fearing to invite the foreigners to their homes. The end of Perestroika promoted the activation the charitable activities of the club, by providing material and financial support. There was opened the office for collecting clothing, shoes, furniture and other necessities. The club members drew attention to the social and psychological aspects, which had been marked in the conference on pediatric psychology in 1994 under the patronage of the wife of the first President of Russian Federation, Naina Yeltsina. Now the Council of the Club for Charity coordinates 20 projects in four main areas: children in poor or unstable families, children in orphanages or other institutions, children with medical need and elderly and destitute. Furthermore, the club is open to support various groups of people in need, such as assistance in rehabilitation and reintegration of women into society after prison, the purchase of medical equipment for hospitals and for people with disabilities. Always there’s necessity of volunteer help on projects on daily care for children with diseases, as well as necessity of teachers, doctors, translators and assistance in organizing the provision of food to disadvantaged people. Today, charity is the main part of the International Women’s club, many members of the club is actively involved in the process of Charity assistance. Each group project has a coordinator and an assistant who work under the guidance of the Chairman of the Charity board, which has been headed for the last few years by Doctor of Sciences and Professor of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Katalin Diossi.
Two annual charity events help to involve large amount of material and financial support. The main event for many years is the Winter Bazaar. It is traditionally held in the end of November in hotel Radisson Slavyanskaya, which takes more than 80 foreign embassies, represented on the territory of the Russian Federation. Donations of embassies and companies are transferred for the lottery. Winter Bazaar attracts more than three thousand visitors annually, allowing guests to experience the culture and traditions of different countries, to buy clothes, jewelry and souvenirs. The peculiarity of this event is the presentation of dance groups from around the world. The guests enjoy the food variety of the Bazaar, where you can try unique dishes and drinks, as well as buy products. Among the guests of the Winter Bazaar you can meet the heads of diplomatic missions, prominent Russian politicians; special visit to this event was marked by a visit the Winter Bazaar of Lyudmila Putina, in 2000.
The tradition of holding the Annual charity ball was founded by the wife of the Consul of Belgium, Micheline Champenois, in 1996. Initially, the ball was held in the Embassies, but increasing number of guest promoted to transfer the Ball in the most luxurious hotels of Moscow, keeping the tradition of carrying a dinner before the ball in the Embassies. The hotel Metropol, which is famous for its magnificent ballroom, takes a special place in the hearts of the members of the club. Various musical groups and artists entertain the guests, the well-loved lottery is conducted.
The General Officer of the IWC, Neelam Garп who moved to Moscow a few years ago from New Zealand thinks:
“My start in Moscow would have been very slow if I hadn’t known the International Women’s Club of Moscow! I just hit the ground running with this club when I moved here from New Zealand. I created very valuable friendships, found reasons to be excited in this foreign land with so many new things to learn, explore and try. I have never met before with so many people from so many different countries in such a short time. All impacted me positively.
The women in the club are professionals, high achievers and very intelligent. They are either on their expat assignments or following their husbands. Together, we in the club help each other in meaningful ways and make a valuable difference in the lives of children and elderly in Moscow.
I hope and wish to get more support from local and international businesses to work with us so we can even do more to help these sick and needy children and elderly. I’m going to take so many positive and life-changing experiences with me when I leave Moscow!”
International Women’s club in Moscow passed a long way from meeting in a narrow circle for the mutual support of foreign families residing in Moscow, to huge international community, which helps the integration, the adaptation and personal development of foreigners and finding new friends, moving to Russia. It cannot go unmentioned the kindness of the hearts of the club members that help to socially vulnerable groups of Russia.
Diplomatic Fiasco: PTI Government’s Failure on the Climate Diplomacy Front
“Think about this: terrorism, epidemics, poverty, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction – all challenges that know no borders – the reality is that climate change ranks right up there with every single one of them”.– John F. Kerry
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) and United Nations Security Council (UNSC) have both declared that unrestrained climate change poses a threat to international peace and security. Presently, climate change is the biggest threat facing humanity. We all will witness its impacts, making it a critical foreign policy and diplomatic issue. Climate change will overturn the 21st century world order and characterize how we live and work. Even so, in the midst of a global pandemic, it is evident that climate change will be the major issue of this century. As countries will move toward rebuilding their economies after COVID-19, recovery plans will shape the 21st century economy in ways that are clean and green, safe and healthy, and more resilient. Over the last decade, foreign policymakers have taken measures to better understand climate risks. To date, foreign policy responses to climate change have primarily centered on the security repercussions of climate change.
To chart a fresh course ahead, in order to initiate a global fight against climate change, President Joe Biden welcomed a diverse set of leaders from around the globe to explicate the connections between climate security, climate change and broader foreign policy objectives. The list of invitee included world leaders like President Xi Jinping of China and Russia’s Vladimir Putin, PM Modi of India, Sheikh Hasina of Bangladesh to attend the two-days meeting to mark Washington’s return to the visible lines of the fight against climate risks. Though, Pakistan have its place in the same region, and fifth-most vulnerable country to climate change, it has been disqualified from the summit. Likewise, Biden dispatched his climate envoy, former secretary of state John Kerry, to prepare the ground for the summit in meetings with global leaders. The U.S. invited the leaders of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate, which includes the 17 countries responsible for about 80-percent of global emissions and GDP, along with, heads of countries that are unambiguously vulnerable to climate impacts or are representing robust climate leadership.
The current global efforts towards mainstreaming of climate change in development policies and programs are getting more traction due to expanding avenues of domestic and international climate diplomacy. For developing countries, climate diplomacy is undoubtedly becoming a key incentive to integrate climate change issues into their foreign policy. Pakistan is also a relatively new player in the climate diplomacy arena with a nascent institutional setup. The climate diplomacy adaption experience of Pakistan is still at the embryonic stage. The main problem is the gradual decline in the aptitude and capacity of institution to develop a clear policy route. The policy decline is much more rapid under the PTI government. Pakistan’s ambassadorial clout has eroded over the years due to political unpredictability and economic timidity. Similarly, the government has failed even to built a national narrative on climate change issue. Imran Khan has been warning the world of catastrophe if the climate problem is not addressed, but has failed to come out with a clear policy direction on the issue.
Among the many challenges fronting the Imran Khan government will be tackling the notoriously dysfunctional U.S. – Pakistan relationship. The Biden presidency has designated climate change as a critical theme of its foreign policy, and indeed aware of Pakistan’s deep climate vulnerability. For the first time since the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Pakistan is not a foreign policy priority for U.S. administration. Many high-ranking Biden government officials, including climate change envoy John Kerry, know Pakistan well. When Kerry was Obama’s secretary of state, co-chaired US-Pakistan Strategic Dialogue that counted renewable energy. Anybody familiar with how Islamabad and Washington have interacted over the last 74 years will resort to weary metaphors: a roller-coaster ride, the dynamic between an overbearing mother-in-law and daughter-in-law. Biden and his experienced team of ex-Obama administration officials are likely to press Pakistan – for Islamabad, it is a catch-22 situation. In the indigenous context, internal political strife in Pakistan and economic dependency on other countries have raised questions about our ability to effectively fight our case in international arena. The latest diplomatic fiasco speaks very loud and clear about the government’s inability to deal with fast-changing geopolitics. Washington’s broader interests in Asia, including relationships with China and India, will determine its policy at the Leaders’ Summit on Climate. It seems, Pakistan has no friends in the Biden administration. Thus, out-of-the-box thinking is required for Pakistan’s foreign policy decision makers.
Gender Diplomacy: A concern For International Politics
Diplomacy can be defined as an art of interaction between actors (states/ organizations) to achieve mutually benefitted desirable interests of pursuing parties, especially in the international arena of politics. While diplomacy is an integral part of the Liberal school of thought which has primarily dominated world politics, yet the field of diplomacy is itself deprived of liberal virtues of equality and parity. Weighing the balance of ratio between both genders in diplomacy, the dilemma of the day is that females do not reach the level of participation to be in parity with male partakers in diplomacy. Having a statistical outlook at patriarchy-ridden Foreign Services around the globe, female diplomats in Norway, Sweden, Finland, the United States of America, and France makeup to 30%-40% of Foreign Service. While even the developed states have not reached 50% of female diplomats in their respective states, developing states in the South show an even less percentile of female diplomats. South Asian states like Pakistan and India estimate to less than 15 and 20 percent of females in the skill of diplomacy, respectively.
Being an equal sharer in foreign policy-making and policy implementation is a fundamental democratic right of both genders; to serve the country and to shape the future of the land which is their identity, their respect, and their pride. Apart from this that the balanced ratio of diplomatic participants is an integral right, involving women in diplomatic interactions may aid and enhance the pursuance of goals by the states. I would like to back my argument with not only contemporary examples but historical evidence, as well. Turning pages of history back to 400 B.C. where women are named as ‘weavers’ in the writings of Aristophanes to Lysistrate; referring to women’s role as skilled and accomplished diplomats who helped in the resolution of the Peloponnesian war. This act of inter-mingle, unifying, and peace-making through the prowess of consular skill set by then women is explained by Aristophanes in a phrase: ‘Weavers of nations”. This brings me to another point is that in contemporary times as pinpointed by the United Nations, the peace-processes in which women are engagers, 35% of those tend to last for at least 15 years.
While men are more forgoing towards minor details during foreign relation analysis, women tend to put more attention to minute details, which consequently results in the production of best-suited foreign policies. But it is noteworthy that to get potential benefit from this healthy difference in nature between males and females, it is potent enough to bring anequal number of female Foreign Service Officers as compared to male Officers. Having such a salubrious balance of both feminine and masculine characteristics can also equate chances of war and peace, spontaneous and patient decisions, and use of both: hard and soft power. Eventually, this egalitarian level complies with Robert Putnam’s ‘Law of Increasing Disproportion’ which links the rank of authority and the degree of representation of high-status in society. Nevertheless, being an Ambassador, diplomat or even part of Foreign Service is a matter of great esteem and so women in diplomacy, represent women of the society. Linking the argumentative dots mentioned above, the United Nations’ report endorses the importance of the role of women in diplomacy by considering their input as a vital ingredient for stable and secure democracy.
Applying the United Nations’ analysis on the inclusion of women in the artistry of diplomacy on developing states, particularly in South Asia, we tend to project various prosperous benefits of women diplomats in the region, particularly in the context of the two-decades-long conflicts: Afghan-Taliban Conflict and the Kashmir dispute in the heart of South Asia. Women in diplomacy in Pakistan, India, and neighboring South Asian states might weaken the bone of contention between the by-birth rivals: India and Pakistan through conflict transformation strategies. While the involvement of Afghan females in the ongoing and forthcoming Afghan Peace Processes and the future Afghan government can not only uplift the societal status of women in Afghan society but will improve the longevity of sustainable peace in Afghanistan. Eventually, colleen diplomats can help to divert the state-centric state and regional security paradigm of South Asia to human-centric state and regional security, resulting in diversified and proactive approach; fostering fraternal ties leading to paced development in the region and abroad.
To conclude with, as I have highlighted the irony of the hour with an un-equal statistical ratio of gender parity in the course of diplomacy and the importance of achieving this parity by incorporating women in the skilled framework of diplomacy, I would like to propose universally applicable policy measures to acquire this equivalence. The first and foremost step is to bring awareness in society for the encouragement and acceptance of more female diplomats as opposed to the conventional fields like medical and engineering sciences. Along with this policy changes should be made to ensure equal recruitment of female diplomats, specifically on merit to counter and curtail the patriarchal dominance, mostly due to the might of money. Lastly, a female-friendly environment should be promoted to utilize the feminine potential in Foreign Offices. Conclusively, equal participation of both genders will result in sustainably productive democracies—both, in letter and spirit. Hence, gender equality in diplomacy is essential for the growth and evolution of international politics.
Сultural diplomacy as an effective instrument of Italian soft power: the INNOPROM case
Despite the complicated geopolitical rhetoric of European interaction with Russia and economic sanctions, international life continues. In such conditions, culture remains in fact the only instrument for supporting and developing international relations. International cultural relations strive to maintain “neutrality”. In the context of globalization, the blurring of borders, it is cultural policy that can become a point of mutual understanding, finding a common language and preserving existing civilizational layers.
Cultural diplomacy is a state policy aimed, within the framework of foreign policy, at the export of representative data of national culture and at interaction with other countries in the same cultural sphere. The tools for the implementation of cultural diplomacy are primarily used to form a positive foreign policy image of the country, as well as indirectly for the development of intercultural dialogue, sustainable development and conflict prevention and are associated with various areas of human activity: cinema, religion, science, cultural exchanges, literature, theater, etc. much more.
For 2020, Italy was ranked ninth in the National Brands Index and eleventh in the soft power rating of the British agency Portland. Despite the fact that Italy was not included in the “five” leaders, its “attractiveness” for foreigners remains unshakable. At the present stage, the development of Italian culture outside is carried out by the General Directorate for the promotion of the concept “System – Country”, whose functions include: dissemination of Italian culture, language and creativity abroad; organization of cultural events (week of the Italian language in the world, week of Italian cuisine in the world, festivals of Italian cinema); coordination of the activities of cultural institutions and language schools; provision of scholarships and grants; ensuring the country’s participation in the work of various organizations in the field of culture, etc. Thus, Italy actively uses the basic tools of cultural diplomacy (language and culture, education and science, innovation, tourism) to build intercultural relations at all levels.
One of the most effective tools of cultural diplomacy is the holding of international industrial exhibitions abroad. This event always works simultaneously in several dimensions: 1) has a political color (as a rule, politicians solemnly open the exhibition, timed the signing of various bilateral agreements); 2) gathers a large number of representatives of real business (which promotes the national brand of the country, and also develops economic diplomacy); 3) demonstrates scientific and technological achievements (contributes to the activation of scientific diplomacy); 4) conduct a series of cultural events aimed at introducing and promoting national culture.
From this point of view, the Innoprom case is interesting, where Italy is the first European partner country for organizing the exhibition.
INNOPROM is an international industrial exhibition held in Yekaterinburg annually since 2010. This is the main industrial, trading and export platform in Russia. About 80% of the visitors of the exhibition are professional buyers from different countries of the world, specialists from industrial enterprises who make decisions on the introduction of new products and technologies in production. Italy was chosen as the partner country of INNOPROM-2021 – a country in the top ten economies in the world and in the top three of the European Union, as well as one of the main foreign trade partners of Russia. Over the past few years, the country’s industry has reached new heights in such industries as mechanical engineering, metallurgy, chemical, petrochemical, light and food industries.
At INNOPROM-2021, the Partner Country will present the achievements of the Italian industry, innovative developments, investment opportunities and prospects for further cooperation between the countries. The Italian Republic will become the Partner Country of the 11th International Industrial Exhibition INNOPROM. The exhibition will take place in Yekaterinburg from 6 to 9 July 2021, and the theme of the exhibition will be “Flexible Manufacturing”. During a working meeting with the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation Denis Manturov, Prime Minister of Italy Giuseppe Conte confirmed the readiness of the Italian Republic to participate in the INNOPROM 2021 exhibition. and the nature of modern world economic relations, ”said the head of the RF Ministry of Industry and Trade.
At the moment in Russia there are about 500 enterprises with the participation of Italian capital. Italy views Russia as a long-term and reliable partner, and is also interested in the further development of trade, economic and industrial ties.
“In our opinion, this is a confirmation of how strong our ties are,” said Giuseppe Conte at the opening of the Russian-Italian business forum for cooperation in the field of small and medium-sized enterprises. More than 100 Italian companies have expressed interest in participating in the exhibition. According to preliminary data, the exposition of the Partner Country will be about 3000 sq. m., and leading Italian companies in the field of automotive, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, etc. will present their stands. As Italian Ambassador to Russia Pasquale Terracciano noted, “Italy is chairing the G20, and in July it will become the first European country to partner with Innoprom. Despite the sanctions regime imposed by the EU, Italy and Russia have a special relationship. The largest industrial companies in Italy (not only manufacturers of luxury and luxury cars) are actively working on the Russian market, and the Italian embassy, which occupies the famous Berg mansion in Moscow, remains, perhaps, the most hospitable».
The Sverdlovsk region and the Italian republic have been closely cooperating for many years. The Sverdlovsk Region has an Agreement between the Government of the Sverdlovsk Region of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Piedmont Region of the Italian Republic on trade, economic, scientific, technical and humanitarian cooperation dated July 22, 2002. In October 2015, within the framework of the visit of the delegation of the Sverdlovsk region to the Italian Republic, a memorandum of intent was signed between the Governor of the Sverdlovsk region (Russian Federation) E.V. Kuyvashev and the President of the region of Liguria (Italian Republic) G. Toti. The cities of Genoa and Turin are twin cities of Yekaterinburg. The city of San Benedetto del Tronto, San Remo are twin cities of the Verkh-Isetsky district of Yekaterinburg. The town of Selva di Val Gardena is twinned with the Kachkanar urban district. The city of Asti is twinned with the urban district of Krasnoufimsk. In 2019, the foreign trade turnover of the Sverdlovsk region with Italy decreased by 30.8%, while exports decreased 57.8%, imports increased by 3.7%. In 2019, for export to Italy from the Sverdlovsk region, mainly metals and products from them were supplied, including ferrous metals and products from them (semi-finished products of unalloyed steel, ferroalloys, sheet products, pipes), aluminum (rods and profiles), copper ( refined, rods and profiles), other metals (titanium, chrome), wood (plywood), mineral products.
On March 18-19, 2021, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Italian Republic to the Russian Federation Pasquale Terracciano arrived on a visit to Yekaterinburg. During a meeting with the Governor of the Sverdlovsk Region Yevgeny Kuyvashev, they discussed the participation of Italy in the international industrial exhibition INNOPROM-2021 as a Partner Country of the exhibition. During the press approach after the meeting, Pasquale Terracciano named the companies that are planned to be presented at the exhibition. These are, in particular, the international energy group Enel, the oil and gas company Eni, the Leonardo machine-building holding and the car tire manufacturer Pirelli. During the visit, the ambassador had a rich cultural program. The representatives of the delegation visited the Museum of the first President of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin; opened a photo exhibition of the Italian photographer Elio Ciol; visited the Sverdlovsk Philharmonic (as part of the visit to the Philharmonic, the choral singing of the performers was heard, the cultural program of the Innoprom exhibition was discussed with the director of the Philharmonic); visited the Museum of Architecture and Design, where an excursion was held for the guests (issues of preparation for the cultural program of the international exhibition “Innoprom” were also discussed).
Thus, the participation of Italy as a partner country of the international industrial exhibition INNOPROM is the most important effective tool for implementing cultural diplomacy. The event is not limited to an industrial exposition, although this is extremely important for Italian business, but also has a wide range of cultural interaction and drawing attention to the Italian cultural heritage and way of life.
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