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Southeast Asia

ASEAN – A Pacific NATO?

Luis Durani

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The Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a union of nations that was born out of a desire for economic modernization and development as well as a common fear during the Cold War; communism. Despite many organizations/unions being formed in this era, ASEAN was one of the few that were able to survive the end of the Cold War.

Even though one of the original mandates, the existential threat of communism, has been eliminated, it still has managed to carry on with an updated focus. With the rise of China, ASEAN members have begun to sign defense treaties with one another separately as well as with the US. It is only a matter of time before the organization evolves to become a security alliance.

ASEAN evolved from a previous organization known as the Association of Southeast Asia (ASA), which consisted of Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Shortly thereafter, on August 8, 1967, ASEAN was inaugurated by the signing of the Bangkok Declaration by five countries; Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand.

Despite the creation of the union, ASEAN members had internal squabble and bickering with one another and did not illustrate a semblance of a regional organization. The internal dynamics began to change with the conclusion of the Vietnam War and the US withdrawal. The balance of power shifted with the US defeat and the unification of Vietnam under a Communist regime. From that point on until the end of the Cold War, Vietnam along with its benefactor, the Soviet Union, became the main threat to the organization. The Vietnamese aggression into Cambodia and other actions caused the union to not only strengthen in unity but also proclaim a unified response to Vietnam’s actions.

With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the fear of Communism and Vietnam evaporated amongst the ASEAN members. As a result, ASEAN began to focus on regional trade and security issues. In July of 1995, the regional calculus changed. The former nemesis, Vietnam, not only established diplomatic relations with the US but became a member of ASEAN. Shortly after, Laos and Burma joined the organization. With the inclusion of the entire region, the focus of the organization shifted to economic growth, but also resolving outstanding territorial issues. Even though China had not been a formal ally, ASEAN and China were united in their stance towards the Soviet Union and Vietnam during the Cold War. However, with the Cold War over and China’s rise, ASEAN had its eyes on a new antagonist.

China has consistently held the position that it prefers bilateral negotiations over multilateral negation when it comes to discussions of the South China Sea. China is a large nation both physically, demographically, economically and militarily, certainly relative to the other nations of the region. The imposing stature of China can be more influential when dealing with the different Southeast Asian members singularly rather than in a plurality. Another major premise behind this tactic of negotiation is that China does not want to lend any credence or recognition to ASEAN.

China’s claim and desire to recover the lost territories in the South China Sea due to the Century of Humiliation is seen as aggression and expansionist by ASEAN. They see China’s slow expansion as an approach to seizing the resource-rich area without provoking too much international outcry. Rather than a full out military operation, China uses time as a weapon and incrementally expands in the region without drawing much global attention, according to ASEAN.    

China’s reticence to engage ASEAN as an entity is seen by many as a divide and conquer tactic towards the Southeast Asian nations. The prevailing sentiment in the region appears to be that China is a threat to the stability and peace of the region.

As a bloc of nations, ASEAN’s goal was to help the US contain Vietnam and the Soviet Union in the region. With the Cold War gone, the organization has set its sight on China as a threat to the region. Washington has fully supported the efforts of ASEAN and its members going to the extent of establishing military relations with almost all of them and supplying most with arms.

China’s only escape from its geographical prison is through the sea, which is now littered with the US military. China views ASEAN similar to how the Soviet Union perceived NATO. Even though ASEAN does not possess the military regime that characterizes NATO it is slowly getting there. China views ASEAN as a nascent military coalition and collective security arrangement that is backed by the US military.

ASEAN members in the last decade have witnessed an exponential increase in bilateral defense and security arrangements with one another and foreign powers that China views as hostile in some respects. The head of the Indonesian army referred to the myriad of bilateral alliances amongst ASEAN members as a “defense spider web in ASEAN.” The discussion of a multilateral ASEAN security regime is no longer an afterthought or whisper, but actual discussions are taking place by ASEAN members as well as supported by the US and Japan. Members will no longer feel obligated to peace first, but rather use its military power, backed in some cases by the US, to challenge China. Diplomacy will no longer be the preferred approach. Such a coalition will only further isolate and contain China. In addition, these nations are in control of the important commercial straits that not only supply China’s economy, but also fuel its growth as an aspiring global power.

Since 1993, China has been a net importer of fuel and almost all of it comes through the Malacca Strait and the South China Sea. Such an alliance could cripple China and threatens the existence of the regime because of its ability to control the vital straits to China. Thus, China has been reticent since the beginning to give credence to ASEAN in the hopes of working bilaterally with the nations of the region rather than collectively. However with the continual support of the US and Japan, ASEAN has managed to get China to become a signatory to the Code of Conduct, which entails a behavior of peaceful resolution of issues regarding the South China Sea. However, the growing militarism of ASEAN and the potential for this nascent military alliance to actually become a multilateral security regime could not only threaten the code of conduct but isolate and contain China further. The balance of power is tipping in favor of ASEAN, but China – which sees itself as a victim of occupation once before – will not allow itself to be subjugated at the hands of foreign nations again.

Luis Durani is currently employed in the oil and gas industry. He previously worked in the nuclear energy industry. He has a M.A. in international affairs with a focus on Chinese foreign policy and the South China Sea, MBA, M.S. in nuclear engineering, B.S. in mechanical engineering and B.A. in political science. He is also author of "Afghanistan: It’s No Nebraska – How to do Deal with a Tribal State" and "China and the South China Sea: The Emergence of the Huaqing Doctrine." Follow him for other articles on Instagram: @Luis_Durani

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Southeast Asia

Community Empowerment During Covid-19 Pandemic

Viggo Pratama Putra

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During the covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the economic condition of the world community becoming destroyed, social empowerment of the community is said to be the right improvement step for now. And the most basic way and form of concretization is to build human capital as an initial means of empowering human capital (Social Capital) so as to establish the status of empowerment of a quality society and able to reap the results in a transitional era. But in the process of implementation and regulatory certainty about it has not gotten a fresh wind so the government is forced to turn the brain to analyze the problem again, one of which is by means of optimizing communication and policy advocacy, especially in the midst of a pandemic.

Community empowerment itself is a strategy in national development oriented towards giving opportunities to every member of the community to be able to participate in the development process by getting the same opportunities and can enjoy the results of development proportionately, concerning all aspects of life both in the economic, socio-cultural and political fields. As a strategy that is considered important for the progress of the wider community, human capital development in Indonesia is considered not maximal or even stunting in its development. The authors argue that the direction or controlling of human resources capabilities has not been well directed and the container for human capital development in Indonesia itself is still minimal with awareness of the advocacy of the capabilities of the community.

One of the indications of the unrealized consequences of the design or concept of community empowerment through Human Capital is the problem of development (facilities and infrastructure) through the uneven dissemination of expert human resources and accompanied by the unresponsiveness of the government reading the needs of the community so that most policies issued by the government have not been able to realize the durability in the community. For example, social assistance in the form of BLT kepad community affected by covid-19 is uneven and even many reports mention the number of people who have not received any assistance at all. This kind of unresponsiveness causes problems in the community such as prolonged economic inequality, especially the psbb policy that restricts the movement of the community.

Poverty and economic inequality that we see a lot in the wider community can be seen from several factors, such as the fulfillment of needs that have not been adequate or still lack like the quality of life of the people. Retardation, such as low productivity, weak and unformidable human resources facing changes for change, limited access to land even though dependence on the agricultural sector is still very strong, weakening local markets and MSMEs because it tends to be used to supply international trade needs. Our country has long interpreted itself as a country of considerable exporters of raw goods in the world, this if seen from another point of view proves that our country is still less innovating in utilizing raw goods that can be much utilized higher selling value to then be distributed or supplied again to local markets and even global markets. But again the quality of human resources that have not been qualified to achieve such access makes Indonesia can not take advantage of the existing transition era by utilizing the sophistication of artificial intelligence and qualified HR qualifications.

In fact, the state is obliged to empower people through concrete measures that have a direct effect on society. The purpose of community empowerment itself is to enable and established society, especially from poverty and retardation, inequality to helplessness in society. In principle, community empowerment requires community participation by proof of inclusion or even implemented by the directly targeted community. Community empowerment must also have a targeted purpose and real awareness that is actually intended only for the benefit of the community. Enabling people in self-reliance (Human Capital) as well as forms of self-help by utilizing all forms of potential that exist will foster fertile return to the power of society in the face of every change that occurs. Towards the government’s policy that will target directly to the community, the public should also be given the opportunity to be able to know all kinds of information about planning (input), implementation (procces), as well as supervision (output) such as supervision of the proper management of state finances on the objectives and indicators of the main welfare of the community so as to produce the results that the country needs in the era of development as it is today.

An author of Sukarno’s Book of Economic Didikari, Amiruddin Al-Rahab once suggested that jargon or the idea of self-reliance in the economy had been called even made into a political orientation in development. Sukarno’s version of the economic idea is actually ideal if aligned with the current state of the Indonesian nation, unfortunately Sukarno was deposed before having time to implement the whole idea of his brilliance. His desire for the Indonesian nation to be able to stand on its own feet and regardless of foreign intervention of the country’s major capitals is a proclamation that no longer exists for the current government because most socioeconomic circumstances are now inherited from the former colonial economy which has been renewed a little more elite. An elite style that is still suffocating if it continues to be left without any buzz that can paddle the competition of today’s industrial revolution era.

A little wasting feels if all policy inputs are then processed or implemented if only using conditional standardization with the subject matter. The government’s indisciplined public policy design is seen as a result of accountability or accountability that tends to indicate uncertainty about regulation. This is certainly due to several factors and mainly perhaps the authors analyze according to the current condition is the result of diseases that come from the bureaucracy so as to cause a lack of education towards the community of positive progressivity that should be able to be built independently through the government of the people, the government that has the full support for the participation of its people.

Through proactive participatory and comprehensive support from the community towards programs that empower the community is expected to support the community to be more prosperous in the face of the covid-19 pandemic. Self-processing will rebuild the resilience of a society that is able to compete and create new development innovations relevant to the changing times. The nation’s vibrant societal social climate should not be a barrier to the country’s progress, but instead enrich the culture and circumference that blends with indicators of a country’s progress. In terms of the economy, an independent economy supported by the principle of flexibility will also support a conducive economy that is resilient to all forms of change. From the beginning, the state and citizens are a unit that is inseparable from the index of optimization of the welfare of the nation and the state, so that the future principles of the government through human capital development programs can be directed to maximize empowerment programs for the lower middle class so that the future of the economy that is sluggish due to the covid-19 pandemic period is immediately normal.

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Reflection of Indonesia’s National Farmer’s Day

Viggo Pratama Putra

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September has been a memorable and recorded month in the nation’s development process. One important event that should not be underestimated, that is the momentum of National Farmers Day. Indonesia’s fertile country has become both a flattering and a slap in the face to the current state of national agriculture. Various problems unravel clearly and painfully if we match the title of agrarian country in Indonesia

Referencing data from The Economist Intelligence Unit, from year to year Indonesia’s position has never shifted far from positions 4 and 5 in ASEAN sphere in terms of food security. While in the world, in the Global Food Security Index (GFSI) Indonesia ranks 61st out of a total of 113 countries. This shows how weak Indonesia’s bargaining position is in terms of agricultural management that leads to food security.

If you take the example of the above data, it can be seen clearly that over the past few years until now there has been a stagnation in terms of agriculture in Indonesia. Political economist Ichsanudin Noorsy in some of his discussions said that Indonesia never really thought of building social relations in structurally dismantling the agricultural and livestock problems that have occurred so far, ranging from upstream to downstream. All flows from resources, production, distribution to retribution and regulation.

As a result of the unpacking of social relations structurally, many farmers are even dependent on the third person, although actually there is now Internet Communication and Technology (ICT). That means Indonesian farmers do not have a good life expectancy in that case, this is similar to Clifford Geertz’s thesis that says society cannot rely on the agricultural sector due to poor food security problems. If looking back at resources and production sectors that are inputs from agriculture is problematic, that means food security or automatic food security will also be problematic.

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself says there are 4 indicators that affect food security, namely food availability adequacy, food availability stability, accessibility and quality/food safety. Of these four factors, it can be compared that Indonesia now faces problems ranging from the conversion of agricultural land, irrigation, the availability of seeds/seeds and fertilizers, as well as guaranteed life expectancy in farmers. On land issues, Indonesia is still not able to equally national agricultural development to the regions.

It is difficult to talk about land problems, meaning there must be an even distribution of the population to spread a more adequate map of farmland in each area. In the field of irrigation, there are still many agricultural waterways in remote areas that are inadequate. While subsudi seeds, seeds and fertilizers are even stripped one by one, not even a few are manipulated procurement. This led to the absence of guarantees and life expectancy in the majority of smallholders, so the agricultural sector tended to be controlled by large companies.

If we haven’t spread the population evenly, it means that we’re still failing to see the resources that indicate that we’re still failing in production (input). It was this failure in the production sector that led to Indonesia still relying heavily on foreign parties. This dependency interferes with the available aspects or availability of domestic food which also results in our country needing dollars (world currency) in holding imports, this is what ultimately affects the growth of further inflation.

The problems that the authors describe indicate that Indonesia is currently facing “Structural Problematic” syndrome in the national agricultural sector. In the past Suharto once said that “a strong economy is supported by strong industry and agriculture”. But when viewed again, the agricultural sector is even left behind, and besides that the manufacturing sector is also falling apart. Whereas during this time the government has always been a fanfare saying agriculture is soko guruh national development, but the reality is even inversely proportional. This is what the author refers to as a kind of ambitious attitude in the author’s writing entitled ambitiousness in state governance.

Sukarno used to be fiery in his oration and gave up a spirit that mentioned “do not let us become a nation of kuli or kuli among other nations”. The simple logic that will be created if Indonesia continues to depend on foreign investment is a sign that Indonesia is also ready to become a kuli because it reduces production factors or upstream from food security itself. How can Indonesia talk about food sovereignty if food is just a matter of position.

Especially in the days of the Covid-19 pandemic now that has a huge impact on national food security such as the disruption of production factors due to restrictions on the movement of labor, distribution that has also been hampered some time ago, as well as the purchasing power of the people that is decreasing. Looking back from data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) which released the national economic growth position in the second quarter of 2020 decreased to 4.19%, while agricultural GDP grew 16.24% and became the highest contributor to national economic growth. This data shows how important the agricultural sector is as the key to increasing the weighting of national economic growth.

Referring to systematic problems in the agricultural sector in Indonesia should make us all have to be careful, because it becomes possible if not immediately addressed, it could be that for many years the agricultural sector in Indonesia can no longer meet the food needs for all Indonesians that will cause a prolonged food crisis. This bad shadow will certainly make Indonesia more dependent on foreign imports. In the absence of systemic fix on agriculture, then the success as an agrarian state that was once often hailed only as a name.

Let us reflect again on the momentum of September 24 as the anniversary of this national farmer’s day. The extent to which we contribute and position ourselves as indonesians, whether we will truly optimize the role according to our respective professions in improving the agricultural sector or simply hide behind dependency and become a nation that is always dictated by big global players. The determination of national farming day based on President Sukarno’s decision on August 26, 1963 No.169/1963 signifies the importance of the role and position of farmers as a nation entity that must be maintained and expanded.

Let’s celebrate the agrarian day of the Indonesian nation by showing the best ideas for the future of national agriculture, thinking critically and building and taking a position as an agent of change of every problem that is gnawing at agriculture today. Reinvent agriculture that is dischared over resources from upstream to distribution as a downstream of food security factors. Avoid bad stereotypes of farmers, because in Europe and America though, farmers are very sovereign and even have important positions in their professions. Special for young Indonesians, let’s reclaim the long-awaited agricultural success of the nation, once again happy national farmer’s day.

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Southeast Asia

Being an idiot student is an option

Kevin Fallo

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“Long live student!” The loud shouts that we always hear when students give speeches in order to convey the aspirations they have accommodated. Students are very synonymous with the terms agent of change, social control, iron stock, moral force or other audible terms intelligent other. Even long before Indonesia’s independence and when Indonesia was still struggling to fight for independence, students were already seen intelligent be it in discussion, mindset, politics, dynamics and so on.

Students also got cooler to hear when the 1998 reforms flared up, one by one the figures or more warmly known as “activists 98” got a proper place in government or in other warm places after entering the reform era. Previously, these 98 activists became heroes in order to uphold justice and voice the real aspirations of the people so that some of them became anti-heroes who broke justice itself after occupying and enjoying the warm seat of government.

Ideally, the role of students is to become a liaison between the community and the government, help translate every government policy to the community, accommodate people’s aspirations to be conveyed to the government, decide untrue news circulating in the community, and help maintain social stability in society. When the role of a student is carried out properly, today’s students can become intelligent.

Know that now students are not all intelligent, even stupid students are born and just die. Even in some big universities, the domination of stupid students is now getting crazy. Students who are not aware of its function, students who are not aware of what it is students and students who only dream of having a GPA that can be sold in the industrial market so they can live safely are symptoms of an idiot student.

These stupid students are not born just like that, some of them even wish they could become good students intelligent but when they saw the situation and condition of the campus that were not like they imagined a feeling of disappointment was born. This disappointment will have an impact on the loss of enthusiasm to become a student intelligent. So that sooner or later they will become completely stupid students.

Everything needs a process

Everything has a process, even instant noodles need to be heated in boiling water and then poured in new spices to be enjoyed. When we don’t see the situation we hope for, please be disappointed, don’t break up there then think about it and start creating the situation we hope for itself. Don’t just be disappointed and keep silent, or waste time waiting for the situation we hope for, because life is also an allowance, don’t waste time, don’t be silent when you lose and don’t be careless when you win, keep going because life needs a continuous process.

Students who took to the streets and gave speeches shouting loudly “Long live students!” It can also be stupid when they go down the road just to be seen, students who are active in organizations can also become stupid when the academic organization on campus is unbalanced. Students who have extraordinary ideas can also become dumb when they are quiet. On the other hand, students can become intelligent when not littering, students can become intelligent when deciding on hoaxes in circulation, students can become intelligent when the organization and campus academic life can run in balance.

The activists nowadays who are busy in politics are already visible intelligent it can also be very silly when people’s interests, justice and truth which have always been upheld are replaced by self-interest and a thirst for power. These are the vices of Satan that we have adopted, namely greed, greed, ungratefulness and treachery. Even though there are still good qualities of Satan that we can imitate, namely the unyielding nature (Satan is known to not give up tempting Adam’s grandchildren to the end of the world) and persistence (Satan is also known to be steadfast in his stance and does not want to submit to Prophet Adam).

To be intelligent doesn’t have to be in politics

The definition is too narrow intelligent if we only link students and politics, students can too intelligent by working according to their respective interests, for example, Turah Parthayana, a student from Bali who is now studying in Russia, has successfully become a YouTuber with content exposing his life as an Indonesian citizen living in Russia, there is also a YouTuber with the same content from Gita Savitri Devi who lives in Germany. , and also with Raditya Dika who exposes life as a student in Australia into novels with comedy spices even though he is no longer a student and focuses on YouTube content with ghost coins in his house, and there are many other examples both as YouTubers, artists, programmers, gamers and so on.

To become a student intelligent it is not difficult nor does it need to start from big things, start from small things that are also able to have an impact and change even though indirectly, start to respect differences, start to be sensitive to social issues and not be very ignorant, start working, start to rise from disappointment and most importantly, never be afraid to start it all, if we don’t dare to start then we will never know how it will turn out.

Return the trust and hope of society to students, return to our functions and roles as students, let’s work and innovate according to our respective interests, be proud of Indonesia in the way we like, don’t waste the sacrifices of fighters who have given up wealth and even family to seize the freedom that we feel today, submit to the truth and fight all injustices in this country. Prove that students are still there, not just a political tool tricked by certain elites. Long live student! Long live Indonesian democracy! Long live the Indonesian people! Long live Indonesian women !.

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