Pope Francis, the head of the Catholic Church, and Patriarch Kirill, Moscow’s and Russia’s Orthodox Patriarch, met in the VIP room of the Havana International Airport on 12 February 2016, 1,000 after the last similar event (the Great Schism of 1054, when the East-European churches denied the authority of Vatican). Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill signed a seven-page common statement that comprises 30 paragraphs. We mention that the first common statement of Pope Paul IV and the Patriarch of Constantinople (Istanbul),
Athenagoras I, was simultaneously read in public gatherings in Rome and Istanbul on 7 December 1965. The Catholic church has approximately 1.2 billion believers, while the Orthodox church incudes 14 self-headed regional churches (fully independent administratively) and the American Orthodox church with approximately 300 million believers.
The significance of this meeting can have an important role in the further closeness of the two churches, but a realist analysis indicates several elements worth mentioning here.
Patriarch Kirill, aged 69, desired to have an important role in Orthodoxy and a meeting with Pope Francis would have helped the desire to enhance its importance. President Putin had an important role in the achievement of this objective because he had previously (2014) met Pope Francis in Vatican and Kirill must have had Kremlin’s agreement in his intention, in the context of sanctions imposed to Russia after the annexation of Crimea, the other actions in the east of Ukraine and the direct military intervention in Syria. There are even speculations about Putin being a protector of the Christians in the Middle East, since neither the Vatican, nor the other Orthodox churches have done almost anything to avoid the killing and flight of the Christians in the region or their persecution for the simple reason that they were Christian. Alexander Volkov, the spokesperson of Patriarch Kirill said that he “guarantees 100% that the meeting of the two religious leaders had nothing to do with politics”. We also mention here that Patriarch Kirill supported Putin at the 2012 elections, when he called him “a miracle form God” and the Russian Orthodox church traditionally maintains close connections with the state.
Pope Francis, aged 79, of Argentinian origin, is distanced from the period of the Cold War in Europe and from the actions of the USSR and of Russia in the east of Europe, which led to an attitude that favored Kremlin’s diplomatic actions to get close to Vatican. The difficulty of this meeting is given by the place and time decided on, Cuba being a predominantly Catholic country, but politically close to Russia. After Cuba, the Pope travelled to Mexico and Patriarch Kirill went to Paraguay.
As mentioned before, the Common Statement that has been signed referred (paragraphs 8, 9 and 10) to the situation of the Christians that have been victims of persecutions “in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa, entire families, villages and cities of our brothers and sisters in Christ are completely ex-terminated” and asked for “the immediate reaction of the international community in order to prevent the continuous expulsion of Christians in the Middle East…expressing compassion for the sufferance of peo-ple with other religions that turned into the victims of the civil war, chaos and terrorist violence”.
Paragraph 16 refers to the process of European integration, hinting at the danger of the Muslim migration and of other religious groups, by mentioning that “Being open to the contribution of other religions to our civilization, it is our belief that Europe must remain committed to its Christian roots. We ask the Christians in the East and West of Europe to unite…so that Europe preserves its spirit, which has been built in two thousand years of Christian traditions”.
We also mention paragraphs 19 and 20, which say that “family is based on marriage, a free consented act of love between a man and a woman. Family is the natural core of human life and society”.
The meeting was also a good opportunity for the Russian Orthodox church to stand out, considering that in June 2016 a historical meeting of all the Orthodox churches is scheduled to take place in Crete, and the meeting of the Russian Patriarch with the Pope could help the Russian church enhance its role within the other Orthodox churches, considering that it has lost much of its influence in Ukraine and the unity of Orthodoxy is far from being achieved. We can also relate this to the situation of the Orthodox church in the Republic of Moldova, where the Russian church is trying and succeeding to maintain its positions, al-though it has lost full control of all the Orthodox Christians in this country. Overall, we could say that President Putin was the biggest winner in the meeting between Pope Francis and Patriarch Kirill.
The evolution of the concept of diplomacy
Transformation in diplomacy, like the transformation of other international scenes of international relations, has not stopped at a specific point, and whenever the global structure of transformed diplomacy has changed. Throughout history, various forms of diplomacy have been observed between countries and governments. This development is due to the activity of various factors, and as long as the factors of transformation remain, the process of transformation remains. The new age in international relations has been marked by significant developments in diplomacy. In explaining the dimensions of this evolution, we use the term “modern diplomacy” against classical diplomacy. This paper tries to highlight the historical milestones of this evolution and its components.
The increasing role of global awareness, the diminished governance of states, the growth of information and communication technology, and the growth of non-state actors are among the main factors contributing to the development of diplomacy. Diplomacy involves managing relations between governments and government relations with other Actors. With the changes in the international system, the focus and content of diplomacy have also changed and, as in the past, they are not focused on top policy. In the traditional understanding of realism of international relations, the actions of governments are influenced by tangible factors of power and the content of diplomacy is also a matter of war and peace. In the new environment, new issues such as illegal immigration, human rights, terrorism, organized crime, drug trafficking, environmental risks, proliferation of arms, transnational trade, financial, economic, non-proliferation, human rights and aid issues Humanitarian, AIDS, population pressure, the prevention of indigenous and ethnic conflicts, and other crises and challenges beyond the international community that traditional diplomacy alone cannot cope with through the methods available. In other words, diplomacy in the information age includes wider areas of economic, social, cultural, environmental, scientific, legal and traditional political and military factors, and the issues of the underlying policy are more important in the agenda of diplomacy.
The five main tasks that the diplomatic apparatus does is to collect information and data, political advice, representation, negotiation, and consular services in a new international environment. New functions have also been developed: helping to enforce international regulations, representing the interests of various state and private actors, facilitating the establishment of relations between national and transnational entities, coordinating the activities of various actors in the interests of national interests, the importance of the policy of convincing and image More flexibility in foreign policy issues, crisis management in the new international environment, the development of transnational flows and the increasing role of non-state actors. Many of these tasks are withdrawn from the monopoly of the diplomatic apparatus and are carried out by new actors, while governments are still the most important actors in international politics. But at the same time, they have to divide their duties and responsibilities with diverse, broad-based, state-owned, non-state actors, transnational, and sub-national actors in different fields.
Changing the content of diplomacy, its implementation and guidance has also changed. In this new international environment, the existence of complex diplomatic relations between actors with various interests and boundaries is unclear. This undermines the role of governments in monopoly conduct and enforcement Issues and issues of foreign policy. Prior to the departure of information technology, ambassadors and diplomatic representatives had more relative credibility and independence to conduct diplomatic affairs, such as negotiating and representing duties. In traditional diplomacy, the true role of diplomats was, depending on their personal capacity, the power of the government and the powers given to them by the governments. Diplomats were aristocrats from the upper classes of the community. Bilateral relations were important to them. The protocol and procedures were of great importance.
However, as a result of the development of these technologies, the duties and responsibilities of diplomats have been subject to fundamental changes, and the facilitation of extensive and direct contact with governmental and non-governmental entities across national borders has been facilitated. If the main duties of diplomats prior to this change, the delivery of the message Leaders of countries, attending various ceremonies and formalities, sending information and negotiating, and sometimes making decisions when needed, have now changed these tasks for the sake of high-tech messaging. From the aspect of ceremonial ceremonies and diplomatic events, the concepts of these traditions have changed. In terms of sending information, the role of diplomats has lost much of its importance and also because of the natural circumstances of diplomats, diplomats consider that instead of persuading one or more people should be held accountable to public opinion and diplomatic talks It has been outsourced to a multilateral shape. In the current era, governments usually prefer diplomacy by politicians rather than diplomats. Between the heads of high-level media, private and informal relationships have been created, and the private diplomacy of heads of state and meetings, meetings, negotiations and treaties has increased. However, despite all the changes made in the implementation and guidance of diplomacy, the role of diplomats and their diplomatic expertise cannot be denied.
With the telecommunication revolution, the increase in information and the exchange of information between different countries, on the one hand, the world has become smaller and convergence has increased among countries, and on the other hand the international system has become more complex. These transformations have portrayed the role of diplomats in such a way that the existence of communications devices such as radio and television, and diplomats with more delicate tasks. On the other hand, increasing communication has had a great impact on one of the other responsibilities of diplomats, namely the gathering of information, since the spread of a variety of communication tools has made it possible to more accurately aggregate information. The Internet also created virtual communities to engage people in foreign countries that are not limited to geographical boundaries. The rapid transfer of information from mass media and new communication technologies such as satellite and Internet has ultimately led to a change in public opinion and Directions to it are intended to take advantage of new tools.
The use of new technologies in diplomacy plays an important role in facilitating and expediting negotiations, exchanging and accessing information, expediting exchanges, influencing public opinion and increasing global relations, and making the diplomatic apparatus of the countries more efficient. In the past, traditional national security tools, such as diplomacy, have addressed the physical effects of national power, such as military power and economic power, but these are not suited to new challenges and new international environments. As a result, soft power, public diplomacy, thematic, specialized diplomacy are the main elements of new diplomacy that must be met with countless actors with different interests.
Most new tools for dealing with the new challenges come from information, awareness, and out-of-state control of the state and associated with modern communication technologies. The ability of diplomacy to face new challenges and threats requires structural reforms in the use of modern tools and techniques. Today, diplomacy requires communicating with the public media, which requires special attention. “Advertising” and “public opinion” are two of the most influential factors in diplomacy. There is now a close relationship between diplomacy and the press and mass media. The broad range of people’s access to information through satellite and computer networks has flooded the socio-political environment and brought dynamism and transparency into the political literature of the twenty-first century.
Potentials of cultural diplomacy in Iran- Belgium relations
Term ‘Diplomacy’ stands for guiding of relations between individuals, groups, and nations and it is one of political terms used in the field of international ties. Under current conditions in the world, rather than the subjects which have proposed on diplomatic discussion between various countries such as commercial relations and cultural and scientific ties, this concept plays important role in improvement of world peace and international security. Basically, diplomacy is an important tool for realization of national interests within political, economic, and cultural relations between nations and diplomacy requires for adaption of special and professional forms of interaction between agents of nations in various fields e.g. politics, trade, and cultural ties etc. so that it is discussed about political diplomacy, economic diplomacy, cultural diplomacy, and public diplomacy and the like.
The cultural diplomacy is deemed as one of the efficient and important techniques in relations between nations that aim to improve cultural, scientific and educational relations which will be consequently led to enhancement of political and economic relations as well. This type of diplomacy looks for deepening of cultural relations among the countries and improvement of relation and interdependence between them and upgrading of level of recognition and perception of various international environments and it is implemented through different tools such as educational and academic relations and holding of various conferences and academic communications, exchange of teacher and students, educational and researching cooperation, artistic exchanges (cinema and theatre etc.), games and sports, festivals and holding of book fair etc. and currently this type of diplomacy has devoted high capacity at the international arenas.
Principally, Iran and Belgium are two important and influential countries in both Asian and European continents and improvement of communication between these two countries may lead to strengthening of relations among Europe and Asia and the Middle East.
Due to geographic situation, high population (over 75 million), wide economic market, cultural and civilization potentials, and power for influence in Islamic world, Iran enjoys high potential effect in Asia, the Middle East, and Islamic world and at the same time Belgium is a country with approximately 11million peoples is also deemed highly important in Europe for the following reasons: Firstly, the presence of several wide road arteries, great ports and significant airports has converted Belgium into a transit hub at Europe; furthermore, this country enjoys the annual volume of foreign trade up to 700 billion Euros and possesses advanced industries including in the field of transportation etc. secondly, this country is the headquarter of European Union (EU) and the related institutes and for this reason it is called as European capital ‘ therefore, it highly influences in Europe EU. At third place, Belgium is presently the fifth trading partners for Iran among EU countries where the existing potentials can be developed.
The scientific and cultural cooperation is the complementary dimension for these potentials which may have synergic effect on relations between two countries and cultural diplomacy id the foremost tool in such communications. One of important examples of these potentials is the educational and researching relations between two countries as well as holding of joint meetings, conferences and workshops and exchanges of cultural and artistic products for which this diplomacy may prepare the ground for improvement of relations other cooperation fields. Accordingly, in addition to contribution to interests of both countries, such diplomacy can pave the way for more extensive relations among Europe and Iran and even under current conditions when the world suffers from insecurity, extremism, and terrorism, such scientific and cultural relations and interaction and communications between elites of two nations can contribute to creation of common perception of threats to which the world peace and symbiosis is exposed in order to strengthen moderate and peaceful discourses among Islamic world and the west.
First published in our partner Mehr News Agency
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