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Forced to see things no child should see – exploitation and usage of child soldiers

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Between 250.000 and 300.000 is estimated number of child soldiers in the past year based on United Nations (UN) report from June this year.

Children are taken from schools, families, kidnapped on the streets and exploited in order to serve as combatants, porters, spies, cooks, human mine detectors, shields, psychological weapon, suicide bombers and sex slaves. Every year the number surprises and new lives even as young as seven years old are put into danger and on the first front lines of fighting. One needs to take into account that in reality this number is even bigger because of widespread underreporting.

The UN reported of grave violations committed against children during the armed conflict in Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iraq, Palestine, Mali, Myanmar, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Syrian Arab republic, Yemen, India, Nigeria, Philippines and Thailand just to mention some. The organization has made a list of more than 50 parties that recruit child soldiers. The list is combined of governments and non-state actors. Parties to conflict that recruit and use children are listed by the Secretary-General in the annexes of his annual report on children and armed conflict. The worst countries based on the number of child solders correspond to the most restless territories and in countries where wars are waging and where human rights violations are happening on daily bases. Mass abductions, including children had in past year increased and had led to killing and maiming, recruitment and use, or sexual violence by armies, paramilitaries and rebel groups. The 2014 List on 2014 trafficking persons report from US Department of state includes the government of following countries: Burma, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen that have recruited children in 2014.

Children are the most vulnerable and susceptible to manipulation and forced recruitment in the various conflicts that are being waged around the world today. They are maiming and exposed to killing, sexual violence, denial of humanitarian assistance, abduction, attacks on schools and hospitals are common violations of international human rights law and last but not least they are being recruited. They have support or combat roles. The term child solder defines a person, regardless of sex under 18 years old, who takes a direct or indirect (cook, porter, messenger, medic, guard, sex slave) part in hostilities of governmental or non-governmental forces. The recruitment can be forced or voluntary. They can be paid, promised a better life, there for revenge; honor or they have no other choice. Data shows that war torn Africa has the largest number of child soldiers. US Department of State has released a report for the year 2014, which is raising concerns with facts such as 14 years is the average of a child soldier, 40% of child soldiers are girls, 23 conflicts involve child soldiers and 59 number of groups, the number of child soldiers has remained constant for 25 years.

Based on Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the world all of the countries have limit of the required ages of voluntary and obligatory military service, not including 19 countries that have no defence forces or very limited military forces. Worlds accepted years of starting military career as obligation is 18, even though some countries still have lower census. Younger as 18 and by definition of adult in many states still children, have voluntary military service with 17 years in Algeria, Australia and Canada with parental consent, Germany, Jamaica, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines and Saudi Arabia. Even younger with 16 years voluntary military service exists in Bangladesh, Brazil, Brunei, India, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and in United Kingdom with parental consent. Cuba is based on CIA reports the only country with compulsory military service starting with 17 years.

The numbers of new child soldier recruitment represented in UN report are astonishing. 68 children, of which not all cases are verified and a lot of them not reported to authorities have been recruited as child soldiers in Afghanistan, also to carry out suicide bomb attacks. Underage was seen in police forces and among Taliban. The numbers are concerning in Central African Republic were 464 new cases of recruitment was verified, and because of limited monitoring capacity underreporting also presents problems. Myanmar had ranked high with more than 357 cases of child recruitment. Somalia has seen 819 child recruited by Al-Shabaab, the national army and other militia. Rise in mention topic was seen in Colombia with 343 children. South Sudan crisis has resulted in more than 80 new recruitments. Around 60 was the number in Sudan.

The recruitment and use of children in combat have become commonplace in the Syrian Arab Republic with more than 280 new recruitments. In the Democratic Republic of Congo 241 new cases of recruitment were reported. The deadliest year in Iraq since 2007 was last year, and resulted in more than 67 new child soldier recruitments. Palestine was among those that have in the last year recruited child into combatants, with much fewer numbers than countries mentioned before. Militia groups have recruited child soldiers in Lebanon, Lord’s Resistance Army in DR Congo and in South Sudan, in Mali, Yemen, India, Nigeria with Boko Haram, Philippines and Thailand. What is alarming is also recruitment of children by state organs such as military and police. Such cases were reported in Afghanistan and its National and local police, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, and Yemen.

Recruiting and using children under the age of 15 as soldiers is prohibited under international humanitarian law – treaty and custom – and is defined as a war crime by the International Criminal Court. Many international conventions and even international law exist in the area of child protection, but unfortunately no paper can prevent the harsh reality some children are living in. The Rome statute of the International Criminal Court since 1998 defines the recruitment of children into military as a war crime and a crime against humanity. Further, children are protected by United Nations Charter from 1945 and with Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948. Important documents regarding protection of children are The Fourth Geneva Convention from 1949 and its two additional Protocols from 1977 Geneva Convention Additional Protocol I and II. International labor law with international Labor Organization (ILO) had declared in 1999 with Convention 182 that worst compulsory and forced recruitment of anyone under the age of 18 in the armed conflict as one of the worst forms of child labor.

Based on The Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) from 1989 states shall ensure that persons under 15 age do not take a direct part in hostilities. Under the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, which was adopted and signed in 2002, National armed forces can accept volunteers into their armed forces below the age of 18, but states Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that members of their armed forces who have not attained the age of 18 years do not take a direct part in hostilities. Non-state actors and guerrilla forces are forbidden from recruiting anyone under the age of 18 for any purpose. Many international organizations are accepting conventions and resolutions in order to protect children among them are also UNICEF with it’s a World Fit for Children from 2002 and UN Millennium Declaration from the year 2000. It is sad and unbelievable that many children in the world do not get a share of childhood they deserve. With less than 200 countries existing today in the world, many have not ratified, signed or did both signed and ratified but do not oblige international and national excepted obligations regarding child protection. Progress has been seen in lower or mostly no recruitment of child soldiers by states authorities, unfortunately than cannot be said for other groups and organizations. In some cases, countries are unfit to protect and prevent heart breaking stories of more than 300.000 children recruited as child soldiers.

Teja Palko is a Slovenian writer. She finished studies on Master’s Degree programme in Defense Science at the Faculty of Social Science at University in Ljubljana.

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Intelligence

Ethnic War a Newfangled Pakistani Forward-policy for Afghanistan

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According to the intelligence information, Pakistan’s ISI is trying to start ethnic and maneuvering war again in Afghanistan, of which distinct objective is to refurbish the age-old enmity between the Achakzai and Noorzai tribes in the southwest zone. Besides, they want to start an ethnic war among Pashtuns and non-Pashtuns across Afghanistan, and between the northern and southern directions, thus, the prominent leaders of the Taliban, who are led by the ISI, have been entrusted with the task. As in the east and north of Afghanistan, Pashtun Taliban militants are oppressing other Non-Pashtuns, raiding their homes; however, no high-ranking Pashtun Taliban officials are preventing them because the ISI network leads this strategy. In order to revamp a civil war in Afghanistan, score of influential figures have been summoned by the Pakistani military establishment. 

The latest examples are as follows: Two days ago, the Pashtun Taliban killed the former police chief and an influential tribal leader in Mandol district of Nuristan province, which caused many emotions against Pashtuns especially about southwest zone of Afghanistan. Meanwhile, in order to afresh the years of hostility between the Noorzai and Achakzi tribes in the southwestern region of Afghanistan, the ISI network raised the issue of a mass grave by several leading Taliban militants, especially by the current governor of Kandahar province and Noorzai tribe leading leader, Haji Mohammad Yousef Wafa.

Qari Aslam Noorzai call for by Pak security forces

At a time when the former leader of the Noorzai tribe, the leading smuggler of drugs and heavy weapons in Central and South Asia, and the financial supporter of the first Taliban regime, Haji Bashar Noorzai was released from the US prison in Guantánamo. The Noorzai tribe once again became twice as strong and dominant in Afghanistan, especially in the southwest zone.  Resulting threats towards the Achakzai people, on the other hand, ISI has started rapid efforts to recommence the years of enmity between these two tribes.

Hajee Feyzullah Khan Noorzai meets Pak military Intelligence

Recently, Pakistan’s intelligence network ISI, with the help of some leading social media and high-ranking Taliban officials, has kept the issue of finding a mass grave in Kandahar province in the southwestern zone of Afghanistan broiling, namely by inducing  the blame-game. Meanwhile, local tribal leaders and residents of Spin Boldak district claim that such a grave is the grave of those who were taken out of their homes by the Taliban after August 15.  Since, they were connected to Achakzai tribe and on the other hand, they served in the security departments of the overthrown Islamic Republic of Afghanistan that is why the Taliban night raided their houses, and massively killed them.

Moreover, mass murdering Hazaras at their educational institutions via suicide bombing and meantime blowing up the worship places of Sufi-Muslims, who preach the non-violent form of Islam, while calling for De-weaponization and De-politicization of Islam.

Consequently, by applying such a forward-policy, Pakistan will achieve its fancied strategic-depth in Afghanistan, while subjugating the Afghan Nation.

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Pakistani Intelligence Agencies ignite Tribal Conflicts in Pak-Afghan Region

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According to the intelligence information, Pakistani intelligence community supported by some international rings want to once again spread dispute and disharmony among the tribes in Afghanistan and Pakistan; subsequently the centuries-old evils and wars between the tribes will once more take a new color and become fresh. Recently, rumors of the discovery of a mass grave in Kandahar province in the southwestern zone of Afghanistan are spreading; the blame for this mass murder falls on the former police chief of Kandahar province and the former leader of the Achagzai tribe, General Abdul Razaq Achagzai.  In order to afresh raising the reaction of the Norzi tribe against the Ackzai and anew the evil and war between these two tribes. Even though the current governing body of Afghanistan is completely under the control of the Noorzi tribe, because most of the high-ranking leaders of the Taliban, including the leader of the Taliban, Sheikh Haibatullah, are related to the Noorzi tribe, so there is a greater threat posed to the Achakzi tribe.

Even now, in spite of such menaces, more than 6000 Achakzi families live in Kandahar province, whose members served in the security departments under the command of General Abdul Razaq Achakzi, a staunch opponent of the Taliban.  Currently, in such a tense situation that the Taliban administration has control over Afghanistan and the head of this administration is connected to the Nurzi tribe, the harsh criticism of General Abdul Razaq Achakzai’s mass killings is logical, which can cause international and internal outcries.  As a result, the major victims will be the youths and leading tribal leaders of the Achakzai tribe.

By the advent of Taliban on August 15, 2021, in the first four months, more than 600 youths and tribal leaders from the Achakzi tribe were killed in the southwest zone of Afghanistan, while applying night operations or raids by the Taliban. The most famous case happened to the family of Haji Fida Mohammad Achakzai in Spin Boldak district. Haji Fida Muhammad Achakzai, known as Haji Fida Aka, is a leading leader of the Achakza tribe of Spin Boldak district and had close relations with the family of General Abdul Razaq Achakzai.

 When Kandahar province fell to the Taliban before August 15, the two young sons of him were killed by the Taliban on the first night, unfortunately none of the Taliban officials took any action to prevent the tragedy. Nevertheless, this time, there is a plan going on at the international level to renew the age-old differences between the Achakzai and Norzai tribes, which the international media warmly supports.  If this time the internal differences and conflicts between the Achakzai and Norzai tribes in Afghanistan get sturdier, then it will have damaging effects not only in Afghanistan, but also, serious negative measures will be taken against the Norzai under the leadership of Mahmoud Khan Achakzai, the head of the Achakzai tribe, in the Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan.

In the meantime, the decision of the Pakistani government to hand over the Pashtun areas in Pakhtunkhwa provinces to the Taliban was approved and supported by the Nurzi tribe, conversely, this action of the Pakistani government was strongly condemned by Mahmoud Khan Achakzai and PTM leader Manzoor Pashtun.

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Afghan Zarqawi is shot dead in Panjsher valley of Afghanistan

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According to intelligence information, the leading Taliban commander Maulvi Habibullah Sheeran, who was known as Zarqawi, a resident of Zhrhai District, Kandahar Province, in the southwestern zone of the Taliban was killed in Panjsher battle.

Meantime, the intelligence report indicates, Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir, the general military officer of Panjshir and Andrab and the deputy of the Ministry of National Defense, was injured in Panjshir on Friday, September 16 at 3:25 p.m.

Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir, who is considered one of the leading and influential war commanders in the southwest zone of the Taliban, has the support of about 4,000 low-ranking and high-ranking Taliban fighters. He is one of the Taliban military commanders who, during the first mobilization of the Taliban, formed the Taliban group with the support of Mullah Muhammad Omar Mujahid, the founder of the Taliban, and attracted hundreds of young men from Helmand province to the Taliban group.

When the Taliban came to power for the second time in Afghanistan, due to internal differences among the Taliban, Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir left the Taliban for a short time and went to his native Kajki district of Helmand province. However, due to the many efforts of the Taliban, especially Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir’s assistant and the current head of security of presidential palace  Mullah Mutaullah Mubarak, He joined the Taliban again and was appointed as the Deputy Minister of Defense.

Taliban leaders made more efforts to reunite Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir with the Taliban, because he was an influential military leader, and on the other hand, Taliban leaders were receiving reports that Mullah Qayyum Zakir wants to join ISIS against Taliban. Nevertheless, when he joined with the Taliban leaders for the second time, he was assigned the position of Deputy Minister of Defense, So, for a period, he cooperated with the Minister of Defense Maulvi Yaqoub as a military advisor in the Ministry of Defense.

 When the rumors of the fall of the northern part of Afghanistan were spread and the fighting between the NRF or the National Resistance Front and the Taliban in Panjshir and Andrab intensified, Mullah Abdul Qayyum Zakir, based on the special permission of Sheikh Haibatullah, Appointed General Military Officer of Northern Afghanistan. In addition, from September 9, under his leadership, a special military operation named Al-Fath began in Panjshir and Andarabs to clear and liberate northern Afghanistan from the fighters of the National Resistance Front.

As a result of the operation, from September 9th to September 16th, dozens of NRF fighters were also killed but the casualties of Taliban fighters are methodically shown below, although scores of Taliban fighters were destroyed.

  • The bodies of 60 to 70 Taliban fighters who were killed in the battle of Panjshir have been transferred to Uruzgan province.
  •  The dead bodies of 50 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Kandahar Province.
  • The dead bodies of 33 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Helmand Province.
  •  The dead bodies of 22 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Ghor Province.
  • The dead bodies of 11 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Takhar province.
  • The dead bodies of 6 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Kunduz Chahar Dara.
  •  The dead bodies of 12 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Zabul province.
  • The dead bodies of nine Taliban fighters have been transferred to Wardag Province.
  • The dead bodies of 10 Taliban fighters have been transferred to Dandi Ghori in Baghlan province.  

Last Friday, September 16, in the bloody battle, Mullah Qayyum Zakir, the military officer in charge of Panjshir and Andrab, was seriously injured and eight of his bodyguards, who were residents of Helmand and Uruzgan provinces, were killed. Mullah Qayyum Zakir was transferred to the 400-bed hospital in Kabul at 10 o’clock in the evening on September 16, and former Taliban doctor Atiqullah was invited to Kabul from Al-Khair Hospital of Balochistan province of Pakistan for treatment.

There is a bloody war going on in the north of Afghanistan and around 300 al-Fatih forces are going to Panjshir from Kabul tonight and may reach tomorrow. Meanwhile, in Vienna, the plan for the formation of a new military and political movement was announced in a three-day meeting of the anti-Taliban political officials of the former government of Afghanistan. Moreover, based on that military plan, after dividing Afghanistan into five major parts, the political and military leaders of each zone will start preparing their organizations against the Taliban, and they will use such political and military tactics as the Taliban used against the government of the Republic of Afghanistan during the last 20 years of resistance.

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