Can Kazakhstan prove Huntington wrong?

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Geography and politics undoubtedly conditioned Kazakhstan as a country. It is home to 140 ethnic groups and 17 religions in the intersection of different regions, continents and surely, civilizations, making it a very diverse, polyglot and multireligious nation in the median it remains to this day.

And although the conditions for the country were pre- written, the code of conduct had yet to be established and was dependant on the ruling authority and the Kazakhstan people. Luckily, the country chose the way of interreligious and intercultural dialogue, which keeps its many diverse hearts and minds in harmony. Kazakhstan was therefore able to piece together the mosaic of many different ethnics, religions, languages and nations that constitute it, creating a diverse but unified land everyone can call home.

Fresh in the independent years, this approach was largely under way inside the state borders, assuring a stable future for the newly introduced political entity. But in the aftermath of 9/11, Kazakhstani President Nursultan Nazarbayev decided to more aggressively and visibly promote the need for greater understanding among peoples in the global arena. Consequently, year 2003 saw the continuation of these domestic policies to the international community with the introduction of Astana- based Congress of Leaders of World and Traditional Religions, which has since become a prominent triennial platform for interfaith dialogue and was last held this year on June 10th and 11th. The purpose of this Congress is predominantly the interaction between different religious leaders and the peaceful addressing of common threats such as terrorism, extremism, violence and other maleficent sprouts of religious beliefs. The purpose of the conference is also genuine effort to set the course for a more harmonious development of the world, break the hostile stereotypes and inspire many ways in which different beliefs can compliment, learn, grow and cooperate with one another. Kazakhstani president has emphasized many times that religious leaders have always played an integral role in strengthening their societies and now more than ever, considering the current situation in the world, they must work together towards greater regional and global stability. All of the above is of course intertwined with the ever present promotion of non- proliferation, prevention of drug trafficking and strengthening of the environmental security by Kazakhstan and its president.

Since Kazakhstan is home to an 80% Muslim population with additional 20% cacophony of various religious beliefs, all of them peacefully coexisting, it is a perfect country to host and initiate such events. In 2012, Astana was a host city of the International Forum, devoted to launching the International Decade for the Rapprochement of Cultures, starting from 2013 all the way to 2022. The Forum was attended by many high ranking UN officials, prominent members of the UNESCO High Level Group for Peace and Dialogue of Cultures and experts of ethics and cross- cultural communication, discussing the further development of intercultural dialogue and cultural diversity. In this frame, Kazakhstan was applauded for its considerable skill with commencing and fostering inter- ethnical communication inside the country and the potential of the spill- over effect such successful inter- state policies can provide for the global community. This unique experience of inter-ethnic, inter-religious and inter-cultural communication, accumulated by Kazakhstan, can surely set an example to many countries.

The Kazakhstan government also continuously strives to provide for all the necessary elements and conditions for the evolvement of various different cultures and traditions, inside and outside state borders alike. As a result of these efforts, more than 800 different ethno- cultural associations operate in Kazakhstan, in addition to 384 missionaries from all over the world. Therefore, instead of separating, Astana is very keen in building bridges. Being located on the intersection of civilizations, Kazakhstan likes to see its global role as the gateway to rapprochement of East and West, Europe and Asia, Christianity and Islam and much more. The relevance of this is additionally determined by the course of history itself, hereby especially referring to the globalization processes of the modern world, increased migration flows, the emergence of new national, cultural, religious and other minorities, ethnic and religious conflicts. In such terms efforts, continuously made by Kazakhstan and its leadership, are even more important.

In the recent years, the activities of Kazakhstan in promoting inter- cultural dialogue among civilizations and nations have escalated and its reputation as a tolerant and open- minded country seems to have solidified in the eyes of the international community. Astana also has a solid record of international mediation efforts so far and consequently, the role the country has in global politics has risen vertically and expanded horizontally. Many experts agree that the role of the mediator and peacemaker president Nazarbayev holds and promotes is both an opportunity and a challenge. Thorough the years he has proved to be a reliable partner and an active international player. In his efforts to show that Kazakhstan can play the international communication platform between the East and the West, combined with the country`s support for non- proliferation efforts, he tried to initiate to host talks on Iranian nuclear issue in Almaty. Furthermore, he continues to work towards normalization of relations between Russia and Ukraine and since Kazakhstan has very fruitful and cooperative relations with both Russia and Europe, the efforts are met with high hopes from the bystanders. As a result, Astana was already host to four- way summit between Russia, Ukraine, Germany and France.

Therefore, not accidently, in the last grand strategy of Kazakhstan “Kazakhstan 2050”, it is clearly stated: “The world is undergoing an acute crisis of outlook and values. We increasingly hear voices heralding the clash of civilizations, the end of history and the failure of multiculturalism. It is critically important that we stay away from this kind of discourse, preserving our time-tested values. We know exactly how we turned what was called our Achilles heel – multi-ethnicity and multi-religious reality – into an advantage. We must learn to live in co-existence of cultures and religions. We must be committed to dialogue between cultures and civilizations. Only in dialogue with other nations our country will be able to succeed and gain influence in the future. In the 21st century Kazakhstan must strengthen its position of a regional leader and become the bridge for dialogue and interaction between East and West. “

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