Oppression, denial of existence, prohibition of usage of mother language in public, the press and institutions, forced relocations, no recognition, fear of expressing identity, inequality, economic stagnation or decrease and false hopes are words that could describe the history of the largest ethnic group in the world without their own state.
Though the numbers differ, there are around 30 million of Kurds. The exact number is unknown because their existence was denied even in the recent past in some countries and because some of the authorities report of smaller number of Kurdish people on their territory. In some countries Kurds are even afraid to define themselves as Kurds because of political oppression. Reports show that Kurds are the fourth biggest nation in the Middle East behind Arabs, Turks and Persian people. Everyone has so far heard for Kurdistan but except the landscape with the same name cannot be found on the map. Kurdish destiny is decided by three main factors, dispersion, fragmentation and territorial policies.
Kurds are people that in the past had no right to autonomy or self-determination and were not even recognized as minorities in some countries. They are spread across Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria restless territories. Based on CIA World Factbook in 2014 the biggest number of Kurds is in Turkey 14.7 million (18% of the population), than in Iran 8.1 million (10% of the population), Iraq 5.5 million (17.5% of the population) and Syria 1.7 million (9.7% of the population).
History of Turkish Kurds is interacted with oppression, restriction of usage its own language publicly, political institutions, no freedom of expression, assembly and association, displacement as a result of conflict and confrontation with military, journalism activity no recognition and underdevelopment of its territories. Economic problems exist in southeastern part of Turkey, where most of the Kurds live with high unemployment levels. In 2002 Ankara had made some reforms about its very restrictive Kurdish policy, where Kurdish broadcast on radio and television was prohibited. The launch in 2009 of a public television channel broadcasting in Kurdish was a step forward. However, the expression of Kurdish identity is still perceived as a threat to the country’s unity based on the 2011 European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ERCI) report. ERCI reported that many Kurds live in concentrated in the poorest remote provinces of country with difficult economic and social conditions. Inequality is still seen among populations where Kurds are still not equal to the majority of the population. Through time we have seen active Kurdish political movement in the country. Almost all of the parties were prohibited after some time. Reasons for banishment were promoting separatism and Kurdish nationalism among others. A lot of party members were sent to prison and even sentence to jail. Conflict between Turkey and PKK that is composed of various Kurdish insurgent groups, listed also as a terrorist group by some countries, are demanding separation from Turkey and creating an independent Kurdistan or autonomy. The conflict started way back in 1974 and is still going in different phases. Both sides have been accused of atrocities and human rights violations. For many years it was in fact illegal for Kurds speak their own language, use Kurdish names or play their music, going even further with the Turkish government refused to recognize the existence of Kurds and named them Mountain Turks. The situation is yet to get resolved with many obstacles still on the way to peace and freedom. With elections and the HDP – The People’s Democratic Party recorded more than 10% of the vote and pass one of the highest electoral thresholds in the world, it will play an important role for Kurdish people. It was founded as a pro-Kurdish party in 2012. Its representatives will take seats in parliament for the first time and make Kurdish voices heard and improved their overall situation. In my opinion that kind of political solution is needed to help ending more than three decades lasting conflict.
Situation in Iraqi Kurdistan is different and makes and exception in the position of Kurds. Semiautonomous region has been achieved through economic cooperation and opened the road to prosperity. Following the first Gulf war and with the United States (US) imposing a no-fly zone in northern Iraq, Iraqi Kurds have managed to develop de facto self-government since the year 1991. After US invasion after 2003 after two years, followed the new constitution with emerging federal state and declaring Kurdistan’s special status. Even though right for autonomy comes from the constitution, Baghdad has done much to prevent self-government and wants to further lead centralized politics and control over the country. Main problem resides with oil and gas revenues that are found in this area. In the light of Turkey policy regarding large Kurdish population of its territory and often violent disputes country made a shift with supporting financial independence of the region and started doing business and abandoned its stance opposing the autonomy. Baghdad could block Kurdish-Turkish cooperation, but that could backfire in declaring Kurdistan’s independence. It looks like neither side wants such an outcome where Iraq would lose oil and gas revenues or even encourage other provinces to do the same and the other side challenges of independent states. In every way the region is shifting from the central order and rule to more decentralized one with international cooperation.
In Iran Kurds are facing similar economic problems as other countries, such as poverty and underdevelopment. Iranian Kurds have in the 20 century established a semi-independent state which was abolished in one year. Amnesty International has reported of abuses and suppression of Kurdish people, their social, political and cultural rights and even of big number of Kurdish citizens being executed. Kurds in Iran are getting less international attention than in other countries, but political repression is present every day. Iran remains second largest executer in the world and reports from international humanitarian organizations accused Iran of unfair trails and right violations against minorities and activists. Many Kurdish political prisoners were till this day executed. In May we have seen Kurds protests in Mahabad against authority, but their situation does not seem to be improving.
Another country where Kurds are important minority is Syria. Syria’s Kurds have managed to declare their own autonomous region in the northeast part of the country. As a result of the Syrian war and the rise of the Islamic State, Kurds in Syria have established a self-ruled region called Rojava which spans parts of northern Syria. Rojava is an inclusive system where local communities and groups have great influence on political and social issues. These communities are diverse and include Kurds, Arabs, Turkmens, Christians and so on. Kurds have unilaterally declared self-rule in 2012 and since then protected territories from Islamic State forces. The People’s Protection Unit (YPG) has been fighting against the Islamic State; with support from US-led airstrikes the PYD’s and PKK’s effectiveness in ground operations against Islamic State, most notably in the battle for Kobani in 2014, has led some experts to call for the United States to remove the PKK from its list of foreign terrorist organizations.
It is not the last time we have heard about Kurdish problems, since there are many potential outbreaks of the conflict possible, with unresolved situations in four different countries regarding the same ethnical group. With further suppression and human rights violations the possibility of creating greater disagreement and walls against opposing sides is rising. The Kurdistan remains so far unreachable Kurds distant dream, but hopes and fight against injustice never dies.
Process to draft Syria constitution begins this week
The process of drafting a new constitution for Syria will begin this week, the UN Special Envoy for the country, Geir Pedersen, said on Sunday at a press conference in Geneva.
Mr. Pedersen was speaking following a meeting with the government and opposition co-chairs of the Syrian Constitutional Committee, who have agreed to start the process for constitutional reform.
The members of its so-called “small body”, tasked with preparing and drafting the Constitution, are in the Swiss city for their sixth round of talks in two years, which begin on Monday.
Their last meeting, held in January, ended without progress, and the UN envoy has been negotiating between the parties on a way forward.
“The two Co-Chairs now agree that we will not only prepare for constitutional reform, but we will prepare and start drafting for constitutional reform,” Mr. Pedersen told journalists.
“So, the new thing this week is that we will actually be starting a drafting process for constitutional reform in Syria.”
The UN continues to support efforts towards a Syrian-owned and led political solution to end more than a decade of war that has killed upwards of 350,000 people and left 13 million in need of humanitarian aid.
An important contribution
The Syrian Constitutional Committee was formed in 2019, comprising 150 men and women, with the Government, the opposition and civil society each nominating 50 people.
This larger group established the 45-member small body, which consists of 15 representatives from each of the three sectors.
For the first time ever, committee co-chairs Ahmad Kuzbari, the Syrian government representative, and Hadi al-Bahra, from the opposition side, met together with Mr. Pedersen on Sunday morning.
He described it as “a substantial and frank discussion on how we are to proceed with the constitutional reform and indeed in detail how we are planning for the week ahead of us.”
Mr. Pedersen told journalists that while the Syrian Constitutional Committee is an important contribution to the political process, “the committee in itself will not be able to solve the Syrian crisis, so we need to come together, with serious work, on the Constitutional Committee, but also address the other aspects of the Syrian crisis.”
North Africa: Is Algeria Weaponizing Airspace and Natural Gas?
In a series of shocking and unintelligible decisions, the Algerian Government closed its airspace to Moroccan military and civilian aircraft on September 22, 2021, banned French military planes from using its airspace on October 3rd, and decided not to renew the contract relative to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline, which goes through Morocco and has been up and running since 1996–a contract that comes to end on October 31.
In the case of Morocco, Algeria advanced ‘provocations and hostile’ actions as a reason to shut airspace and end the pipeline contract, a claim that has yet to be substantiated with evidence. Whereas in the case of France, Algeria got angry regarding visa restrictions and comments by French President Emmanuel Macron on the Algerian military grip on power and whether the North African country was a nation prior to French colonization in 1830.
Algeria has had continued tensions with Morocco for decades, over border issues and over the Western Sahara, a territory claimed by Morocco as part of its historical territorial unity, but contested by Algeria which supports an alleged liberation movement that desperately fights for independence since the 1970s.
With France, the relation is even more complex and plagued with memories of colonial exactions and liberation and post-colonial traumas, passions and injuries. France and Algeria have therefore developed, over the post-independence decades, a love-hate attitude that quite often mars otherwise strong economic and social relations.
Algeria has often reacted to the two countries’ alleged ‘misbehavior’ by closing borders –as is the case with Morocco since 1994—or calling its ambassadors for consultations, or even cutting diplomatic relations, as just happened in August when it cut ties with its western neighbor.
But it is the first-time Algeria resorts to the weaponization of energy and airspace. “Weaponization” is a term used in geostrategy to mean the use of goods and commodities, that are mainly destined for civilian use and are beneficial for international trade and the welfare of nations, for geostrategic, political and even military gains. As such “weaponization” is contrary to the spirit of free trade, open borders, and solidarity among nations, values that are at the core of common international action and positive globalization.
Some observers advance continued domestic political and social unrest in Algeria, whereby thousands of Algerians have been taking to the streets for years to demand regime-change and profound political and economic reforms. Instead of positively responding to the demands of Algerians, the government is probably looking for desperate ways to divert attention and cerate foreign enemies as sources of domestic woes. Morocco and France qualify perfectly for the role of national scapegoats.
It may be true also that in the case of Morocco, Algeria is getting nervous at its seeing its Western neighbor become a main trade and investment partner in Africa, a role it can levy to develop diplomatic clout regarding the Western Sahara issue. Algeria has been looking for ways to curb Morocco’s growing influence in Africa for years. A pro-Algerian German expert, by the name of Isabelle Werenfels, a senior fellow in the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, even recommended to the EU to put a halt to Morocco’s pace and economic clout so that Algeria could catch up. Weaponization may be a desperate attempt to hurt the Moroccan economy and curb its dynamism, especially in Africa.
The impact of Algeria’s weaponization of energy and airspace on the Moroccan economy is minimal and on French military presence in Mali is close to insignificant; however, it shows how far a country that has failed to administer the right reforms and to transfer power to democratically elected civilians can go.
In a region, that is beleaguered by threats and challenges of terrorism, organized crime, youth bulge, illegal migration and climate change, you would expect countries like Algeria, with its geographic extension and oil wealth, to be a beacon of peace and cooperation. Weaponization in international relations is inacceptable as it reminds us of an age when bullying and blackmail between nations, was the norm. The people of the two countries, which share the same history, language and ethnic fabric, will need natural gas and unrestricted travel to prosper and grow and overcome adversity; using energy and airspace as weapons is at odds with the dreams of millions of young people in Algeria and Morocco that aspire for a brighter future in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Please don’t shatter those dreams!
Breaking The Line of the Israel-Palestine Conflict
The conflict between Israel-Palestine is a prolonged conflict and has become a major problem, especially in the Middle East region.
A series of ceasefires and peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine that occurred repeatedly did not really “normalize” the relationship between the two parties.
In order to end the conflict, a number of parties consider that the two-state solution is the best approach to create two independent and coexistent states. Although a number of other parties disagreed with the proposal, and instead proposed a one-state solution, combining Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip into one big state.
Throughout the period of stalemate reaching an ideal solution, the construction and expansion of settlements carried out illegally by Israel in the Palestinian territories, especially the West Bank and East Jerusalem, also continued without stopping and actually made the prospect of resolving the Israeli-Palestinian crisis increasingly eroded, and this could jeopardize any solutions.
The attempted forced eviction in the Sheikh Jarrah district, which became one of the sources of the conflict in May 2021, for example, is an example of how Israel has designed a system to be able to change the demographics of its territory by continuing to annex or “occupy” extensively in the East Jerusalem area. This is also done in other areas, including the West Bank.
In fact, Israel’s “occupation” of the eastern part of Jerusalem which began at the end of the 1967 war, is an act that has never received international recognition.
This is also confirmed in a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council Numbers 242, 252, 267, 298, 476, 478, 672, 681, 692, 726, 799, 2334 and also United Nations General Assembly Resolutions Number 2253, 55/130, 60/104, 70/89, 71/96, A/72/L.11 and A/ES-10/L.22 and supported by the Advisory Opinion issued by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2004 on Legal Consequences of The Construction of A Wall in The Occupied Palestine Territory which states that East Jerusalem is part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli “occupation”.
1 or 2 country solution
Back to the issue of the two-state solution or the one-state solution that the author mentioned earlier. The author considers that the one-state solution does not seem to be the right choice.
Facts on the ground show how Israel has implemented a policy of “apartheid” that is so harsh against Palestinians. so that the one-state solution will further legitimize the policy and make Israel more dominant. In addition, there is another consideration that cannot be ignored that Israel and Palestine are 2 parties with very different and conflicting political and cultural identities that are difficult to reconcile.
Meanwhile, the idea of a two-state solution is an idea that is also difficult to implement. Because the idea still seems too abstract, especially on one thing that is very fundamental and becomes the core of the Israel-Palestine conflict, namely the “division” of territory between Israel and Palestine.
This is also what makes it difficult for Israel-Palestine to be able to break the line of conflict between them and repeatedly put them back into the status quo which is not a solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict.
The status quo, is in fact a way for Israel to continue to “annex” more Palestinian territories by establishing widespread and systematic illegal settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Today, more than 600,000 Israeli settlers now live in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
In fact, a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council have explicitly and explicitly called for Israel to end the expansion of Israeli settlement construction in the occupied territory and require recognition of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the region.
Thus, all efforts and actions of Israel both legislatively and administratively that can cause changes in the status and demographic composition in East Jerusalem and the West Bank must continue to be condemned. Because this is a violation of the provisions of international law.
To find a solution to the conflict, it is necessary to look back at the core of the conflict that the author has mentioned earlier, and the best way to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is to encourage Israel to immediately end the “occupation” that it began in 1967, and return the settlements to the pre-Islamic borders 1967 In accordance with UN Security Council resolution No. 242.
But the question is, who can stop the illegal Israeli settlements in the East Jerusalem and West Bank areas that violate the Palestinian territories?
In this condition, international political will is needed from countries in the world, to continue to urge Israel to comply with the provisions of international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and also the UN Security Council Resolutions.
At the same time, the international community must be able to encourage the United Nations, especially the United Nations Security Council, as the organ that has the main responsibility for maintaining and creating world peace and security based on Article 24 of the United Nations Charter to take constructive and effective steps in order to enforce all United Nations Resolutions, and dare to sanction violations committed by Israel, and also ensure that Palestinian rights are important to protect.
So, do not let this weak enforcement of international law become an external factor that also “perpetuates” the cycle of the Israel-Palestine conflict. It will demonstrate that John Austin was correct when he stated that international law is only positive morality and not real law.
And in the end, the most fundamental thing is that the blockade, illegal development, violence, and violations of international law must end. Because the ceasefire in the Israel-Palestine conflict is only a temporary solution to the conflict.
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