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Wahhabi’s on the warpath in Sydney Australia

Alexander Athos

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Just months after the lone wolf attacks by the shooter in Canada’s capital and the hatchet man in Queens New York, Australia has had its taste of ‘Wahhabi’s on the warpath’.(1)

This time another recent convert to the Wahhabi Salafi Islamic sect, Man Haron Monis, a self-styled Islamic cleric aged 50, decided to mount a lone wolf operation to restore glory and pride to his perceived oppressed Sunni brothers. Before then he was a sadistic sexual predator and hater of the West. He was the “author of “grossly offensive” letters sent to taunt parents and relatives of Australians killed by extremism in Indonesia as well as troops who lost their lives in Afghanistan between 2007 and 2009.(2)

Born “Mohammad Hassan Manteghi,” who came to Australia as a refugee from Iran in 1996. On 15 December 2014, this man of ‘Peace’ aka “Manteghi Boroujerdi” and “Sheikh Haron” armed with a pump action shot gun went into a busy Sydney café and held 17 innocent Australians hostage demanding an ISIS flag and to talk to the Australian Prime Minister. The siege ended early on the morning of 16 December, when he shot one of the hostages and was then killed by police.

Significantly, Haron recently converted from Shia Islam to a radical version of Sunni Islam, Wahhabi Salafism. Most terrorist attacks against the West have been perpetrated by Sunni extremists from the Wahhabi Salafi Takfiri cult which the Australian PM correctly describes as a Death Cult who seek martyrdom in killing Shia’s and Westerners.

On his website he proudly renounces his Iranian Shia heritage and says “I used to be a ‘Rafidi’ ( رافضي  an Arabic term for “one who rejects” that is typically used by Sunnis to denigrate Shias as non-Muslim) but not anymore. Now I am a Muslim (Arabic: مسلم‎), Al-ḥamdu lillāh” (Arabic الحمد لله‎) phrase meaning “All Praise and Thanks to God”). In other words he stating that he is a Sunni and in the typical Wahhabi Salafi Takfiri narrative, so a true Muslim and by implication, that all Shia are takfiri (Arabic: تكفيري‎ for ‘apostate’).

“In their ongoing campaign to unseat the Shia government of Iraq and the Alawite government Syria, the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, aka ISIS) frequently uses “rafida” (sometimes “raafida”) to refer to all Muslims who are not Sunni. This term is also used to refer to citizens of Iran, which is approximately 90% Shia and 8% percent Sunni. ISIL members are known to execute those who they accuse of being “rafida”. In Saudi Arabia today (where the Wahhabi Salafi denomination of Islam predominates), Shiites are referred to as Rafidha. In Iraq, anti-Shi’a material is still surfacing. A discourse was released after improvement by the name of “The Rafida in the Land of Tawhid”, which included orders by a member of the Higher Council, to kill Shi’is. Until 1993, schoolbooks in Saudi Arabia openly denounced the Shi’i and Sufi beliefs and referred to the Shi’i as rafida in the books.” (3)

With his girlfriend, Amirah Droudis, Haron undertook a campaign protesting against the presence of Australian troops in Afghanistan, by writing letters to the families of soldiers killed there, in which he called the soldiers murderers. “Haron was arrested on charges of “using a postal or similar service to menace, harass or cause offence”, all of which he pleaded guilty to in 2013. He was reportedly sentenced to probation and 300 hours of community service.”(4)

Chillingly, his web page said after his conviction for sending grieving relatives of killed Aussie servicemen hate mail was: “From now on when I want to advise people not to kill children, I should do it by hand delivery, not by using the postal service”.(5)

We are told he was a lone wolf but he was a leader in the Sydney Islamic Community also known as Sheik Haron. He has devotees/followers. The police and counter terrorist organizations would be wise to round them up and question each of them and keep an eye on them.

One of his closest associates is his girlfriend ‘sister’ Amirah Droudis who allegedly brutally killed Sheikh Haron’s ex-wife Noleen Hayson Pal, setting her on fire and stabbing her 18 times in a stairwell in March 2014. She was out on bail for that, as was Haron. Haron and his girlfriend were on bail for charges relating to this brutal killing when the siege occurred.(6)

Here is a video(7) of a ‘sister’ devotee of ‘brother’ Haron’s from the website www.sheikhharon.com saying “In the name of God the Merciful…” there is media mafia that reports on behalf of Islam’s enemies. Listen for the machine gun sound effects at the end of the clip with the words: ‘Our Policy: War on Oppression’ (8)

Someone has taken down his website but here is a copy:
http://www.vox.com/2014/12/15/7393791/sheikh-haron-website/in/7157998
On his website, he describes himself as a cleric of ‘Peace’ but that means only peace for the Muslims…all enemies of Muslims as he sees them (“America and its allies including  UK and Australia” ) must be confronted for their so called “criminal acts” in oppressing  Muslims (and he shoes graphic images of dead, presumably Muslim, children in which it is implied that the West killed)….on the website he says Muslims must fight against these ‘crimes’ and so uphold ‘peace’. This is his perverted message and the narrative of all Wahhabi Salafi’s like Al Qaeda and ISIS. He exhorts his ‘brothers’ (fellow Sunni Muslims) to “obey Allah and His Messenger and the caliph” (i.e. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi ISIS leader who has proclaimed himself Caliph of Sunni Muslims). Also an image on the website shows Haron wearing the same headband he wore during the Martin Place siege, which said: “We are ready to sacrifice for you, O Muhammad” (a motif often used by suicide martyrs) which suggests he was ready to perpetrate horror and then end his life as a Salafi hero /’Shaheed” on a martyrdom operation. If true, it was just as well the siege ended as it did, thanks to the heroism of the Lindt Chocolate Cafe manager, Tori Johnson who grappled with the gunman when Sheikh Haron the cleric of ‘peace’ tried to shoot fleeing hostages with his pump action shotgun. (9)

This horrific act of terror in the middle of downtown Sydney vindicates the Australian government’s strong stand against hate preaching and extremism and the beefing up of their laws and counter terrorism infrastructure.

It also vindicates the large prophylactic raids by Police to thwart beheadings in Martin Place just months prior to this siege from Moran’s fellow travellers.

Interestingly after those raids in September 2014, Hizb ut-Tahrir and many Muslims (approximately 400) including Wassim Doureihi (owner of the infamous Jihadist ‘Al Risalah Islamic Bookstore’ in Bankstown) and Sheikh Haron (pictured third from the left in Salafi dress and fist pumping the air) organized a mass Muslim protest at the Lakemba railway station in Sydney. (10)

Many Counter Terrorism commentators including Muslims like Maajid Nawaz of Quilliam Foundation have said of this siege that what is needed is a counter narrative to the Wahhabi Salafi ideology which says that the West oppresses Sunni Muslims and needs to fight and instil terror in the West to build a theocratic Sharia dominated Salafi Caliphate in the Middle East, the Balkans, North Africa and Spain to be safe from contamination from a decadent and militant West and restore Islamic pride. See Maajid’s earlier interview on CNN as to what makes people (like Sheikh Haron) want to support and identify with extremist Wahhabi Salafi outfits like Al Qaeda, Al Nusra, Boko Haram, Al-Shabaab, Jemaah Islamiyah, Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, Hiz ut-Tahrir and ISIS.(11)

After the Sydney Siege, it is hoped that ‘hate preachers’ in Australia and everywhere will be exposed without the retort that to do so is an attack on the Islamic community. It is not.

Here is a list of some of the Australian hate preachers and you will see that they all espouse the ISIS Wahhabi Salafi Takfiri ideology.(12)

Most Muslims do not accept these radical hate preachers. They are normally at the fringes of Islamic society. They gain marginal acceptance in times of conflict but Muslim families fear for their children who could get caught up with the Wahhabi Salafi extremists who glorify death for a false narrative that Muslims and Non-Muslims cannot co-exist and that this justifies suicide martyrdom jihad attacks on the West of the kind Sheikh Haron was on in a chocolate shop at Christmas time. (13)

 


  1. See my previous article in Modern Diplomacy: https://www.moderndiplomacy.eu/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=427:wahhabi-lone-wolves-on-the-warpath-in-the-west&Itemid=488
  2. http://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2014/dec/15/man-haron-monis-sydney-siege-suspect
  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rafida
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2014_Sydney_hostage_crisis
  5. http://www.vox.com/2014/12/15/7393791/sheikh-haron-website/in/7157998
  6. http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/sydney-siege-ends-family-of-exwife-noleen-hayson-pal-furious-gunman-on-bail-20141215-127z7s.html
  7. http://www.vox.com/2014/12/15/7393791/sheikh-haron-website/in/7157998
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ooSsyplMNi0
  9. http://weaselzippers.us/208181-where-is-sydneysiege-sheikh-harons-spokeswoman-amirah-droudis-who-confessed-i-am-a-terrorist/
  10. http://www.smh.com.au/national/muslim-community-apprehension-after-raids-leads-to-snap-protest-20140918-10iupz.html
    [11] http://edition.cnn.com/video/?/video/bestoftv/2014/06/23/exp-erin-intv-nawaz-iraq-crisis-isis-recruitment.cnn&video_referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.quilliamfoundation.org%2Fin-the-media%2Fmaajid-nawaz-interviewed-by-cnns-anderson-cooper-about-isis-social-media-strategy%2F
    [12] http://www.news.com.au/world/middle-east/hate-preachers-in-australia-uncovered-after-fiery-lateline-interview/story-fnh81ifq-1227086138502
    [13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_Haron_Monis

Alexander Athos is a writer and businessman.He was awarded a Bachelor of Arts (European History) Personal background Alexander was christened Orthodox brought up Catholic and now Evangelical Christian with an acceptance of the best in Christian tradition and a respect for genuine people of faith from other cultures. Political inclinations: Christian intellectual who has an eclectic predisposition to understanding global and national political and social trends and seeking to influence them for good by thoughtful and persuasive discourse.

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Terrorism

Stateless and Leftover ISIS Brides

Sagar N

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While the World is busy fighting the pandemic and the economic devastation caused by it, one of the important problem that has been pushed to dormancy, is the status of the ISIS(Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) brides. The Pandemic has crippled the capacity of the law enforcement and exploiting this the ISIS executed attacks in Maldives, Iraq, and the Philippines. The United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres has warned that terrorists are exploiting the COVID-19 Pandemic. Albeit the ISIS has been defeated, approximately ten thousand of them are in ISIS detention centres in Northern Syria under Kurds. Most of these detention centres are filled by women and children, who are relatives or widows of the ISIS fighters. With their native states denouncing them, the status of the stateless women and children is unclear.

As it stands today states’ counter-terrorism approach has been primarily targeting male militants but women also have played a role in strengthening these terrorist organizations. Women involvement in militant organizations has increased as they perform several activities like birthing next-generation militants/jihadists, managing the logistics and recruiting the new members to the organizations. The world did not recognize women as key players in terrorist organizations until the 1980s when females held major roles in guerilla wars of southern America. Women have either willingly or unwillingly held a variety of roles in these extremist organizations and Islamist terrorist organizations like Hamas and al-Qaeda women do simply provide moral support.

According to the media reports since the US withdrawal from Iraq in 2006 female suicide attacks have been increased and they have been extensively part of ISIS. The ISIS had a female brigade which they called as Al-Khansaa which was established to perform search activities in the state. Both foreign and domestic recruits in the Islamic state have participated in brutal torture. A recently acquired logbook from a guesthouse in Syria provides important information about 1100 females who joined the organization, the western women who are called as ‘the muhajirat’.

When the people from rest of the world joined organizations such as ISIS, they burnt their passports and rejected their national identity. Especially women from western countries who were radicalized online based on their phenomenon ‘ISIS brides/Jihadi brides’ to marry terrorists. Since Islamic State isnot recognized by the world these marriages are not legally valid, apart from this a number of these brides have experienced sexual torture and extreme violence.

While the erstwhile members of the extremist organizations like ISIS and others are left adrift the one challenging question remaining is should states and their societies keep them and reengage or rehabilitate or prosecute them. How firmly the idea of their erstwhile organization is stuck in their minds and especially the followers who crossed the world to join remains a concern to many. The U.S backed Kurdish forces across turkey border hold thousands of these left-behind women and children in their centre. Hundreds of foreign women and children who were once part of an aspirant state, The caliphate are now floating around the concentration camps in Syria, Turkey and Kurdish detention centres and prisons. Many are waiting to return to their origin countries. They pose a unique challenge to their native states like whether to include them or not and even if they include how to integrate adults who at least for a time part of these terrorist organizations and what to do with children who are too young to understand the politics and obstacles keeping them in camps and detention centres where resources are scarce. Women present a problem because its hard to know what kind of crimes they have committed beyond the membership of the terrorist organization.

It is no secret that women also have been part of insurgency across the world, like in ISIS,LTTE,PIRA and PFLP. The responsibility of women in ISIS includes wife to ISIS soldiers, birthing the next generation of jihad and advancing ISIS’ global reach through online recruiting. The International Center for Study of Radicalization (ICAR) estimates that out of 40000 people joined ISIS from 80 different countries nearly 8000 are women and children. After the defeat of ISIS and such extreme organization those who are left behind possess the ideological commitment and practical skills which again a threat upon return to home countries.

The states across the world are either revoking the citizenship or ignore their responsibility. The most famous case of Shamima  Begum a UK citizen married to an ISIS fighter whose citizenship was revoked by the UK government. In other cases like HodaMuthana of the USA and Iman Osman of Tunisia have been the same case. As recently as Tooba Gondal an ISIS bride who now in a detention camp in northern Syria begged to go home in the UK in a public apology.

The American president Donald Trump issued a statement saying women who joined ISIS cannot return. The NATO deputy head said “…returning ISIS fighters and brides must face full rigours of the law”. Revoking the citizenship and making someone stateless is illegal under international law and it is also important to know how gendered these cases are because the UK have successfully prosecuted Mohammad Uddin and the USA has also done it so. Stripping off their citizenship itself a punishment before proper trail and the only good out of it would state can take their hands off in dealing with cases. Samantha Elhassani the only American who repatriated from Iraq so far and pleaded guilty for supporting ISIS. Meanwhile, France is trying to route its citizens who joined the ISIS and extradited few who are under trial in Bagdad.

As experts and political analysts say “countries should take responsibility for their own citizens” because failure to do so will also make the long term situation more dangerous as jihadists will try to a hideout and turn into militant groups for their protection. The children, the second-generation ISIS need cultural centres and rehabilitation centres and this is an international problem. These women known as jihadists brides suffer from a post-traumatic stress disorder and many are pregnant or multiple children born in ISIS territory.

In some countries travelling abroad to join the insurgencies in North Africa and Syria was not always a criminal act, Sweden criminalized such act recently but to prosecute them proof of offences committed in the conflict zone is difficult to collect and most countries in the world do not allow the pre-trial detention for more than 14 days. With problems of different national Lawson extradition and capital punishment and to prosecute them in conflict countries is also a challenge for states. Since Kurdish forces have signalled that they cannot bring all the prisoners into justice the home countries will have to act or else it might create a long term dangerous situation. With the civil war in Syria is about to end it is time to address these issues because since there are more ISIS fighters in Kurdish prisons and detention centres they could be influenced to join rebels who are fighting the regime of Assad in last standing province of Idlib.

If the governments reject the repatriation applications then they will be signalling that their action is essential for national security and thus asserting that failed or poorly resourced states are better equipped to handle potential extremists. The criminal system in Iraq is corrupt and human rights violations have been reported and which creates the risk of further radicalization. One should not forget that even citizenship of Osama bin laden was also stripped but which did not stop him from forming al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. If the citizens commit crimes and forget their responsibility then the states must bring them to justice instead of stripping citizenship. The states must come with a solution for this problem before its too late, setting up an international tribunal to deal with these cases would be a great start but these tribunals are time-consuming and expensive.

States must act as a responsible actor in the international system. Jihadist terrorism is a global problem and states must act together to deal with it because with nearly 40000 fighters joining caliphate from across the world it only shows how global and deeply rooted the phenomenon is. Instead of stripping their citizens’ citizenship, states must find a way to act together for the peace and security of the international community.

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Terrorism

COVID-19: Game-changer for international peace and security

Newsroom

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In Iraq, children look over a wall at clouds of smoke from burning oil wells, the result of oil fires set by ISIL. © UNICEF/Lindsay Mackenzie

The world has “entered a volatile and unstable new phase” in terms of the impact of COVID-19 on peace and security, the UN chief told a virtual meeting with world leaders on Wednesday.

Speaking at one of a series of international meetings among heads of State to enhance global cooperation in fighting terrorism and violent extremism, as part of the Aqaba Process, Secretary-General António Guterres said the pandemic was more than a global health crisis.

“It is a game-changer for international peace and security”, he spelled out, emphasizing that the process can play a key role in “promoting unity and aligning thinking” on how to beat back the pandemic.

Warning lights flashing

Mr. Guterres maintained that the coronavirus has exposed the basic fragility of humankind, laid bare systemic and entrenched inequalities, and thrust into the spotlight, geopolitical challenges and security threats.

“The warning lights are flashing”, he said, pointing out that as the virus is “exacerbating grievances, undermining social cohesion and fueling conflicts”, it is also likely to “act as a catalyst in the spread of terrorism and violent extremism”.

Moreover, international tensions are being driven by supply chain disruptions, protectionism and growing nationalism – with rising unemployment, food insecurity and climate change, helping to fuel political unrest.

A generation in crosshairs

The UN chief also noted that a generation of students is missing school.

“A whole generation…has seen its education disrupted”, he stated. “Many young people are experiencing a second global recession in their short lives.”

He explained that they feel left out, neglected and disillusioned by their prospects in an uncertain world.

Wanted: Global solidarity 

The pandemic has highlighted vulnerabilities to emerging threats such as bioterrorism and cyber-attacks on critical infrastructure.

“The world faces grave security challenges that no single country or organization can address alone”, upheld the Secretary-General, “there is an urgent need for global unity and solidarity”.

Recalling the UN’s Virtual Counter-Terrorism Week in July, he reminded that participants called for a “reinvigorated commitment to multilateralism to combat terrorism and violent extremism”.

However, a lack of international cooperation to tackle the pandemic has been “startling”, Mr. Guterres said, highlighting national self-interest, transactional information sharing and manifestations of authoritarianism. 

‘Put people first’

The UN chief stressed that “we must not return to the status quo ante“.

He outlined the need to put people first, by enhancing information sharing and technical cooperation “to prevent terrorists exploiting the pandemic for their own nefarious goals” and thinking “long-term solutions rather than short-term fixes”.

“This includes upholding the rights and needs of victims of terrorism…[and] the repatriation of foreign terrorist fighters, especially women and children,  and their dependents to their countries of origin”, he elaborated.

Closing window 

Meanwhile, the risk of COVID-19 is exacerbating the already dire security and humanitarian situation in Syrian and Iraqi camps housing refugees and the displaced.

“The window of opportunity is closing so we must seize the moment”, the UN chief said. “We cannot ignore our responsibilities and leave children to fend for themselves and at the mercy of terrorist exploitation”.

He also expressed confidence that the Aqaba Process will continue to “strengthen international counter-terrorism cooperation, identify and fill capacity gaps, and address evolving security threats associated with the pandemic”, and offered the UN’s “full support”.

Post-COVID rebuilding 

The Secretary-General also addressed the Centenary Summit of the International Organization of Employers (IOE) on how private and public sector cooperation can help drive post-COVID change. 

He lauded the IOE’s “significant contributions” to global policymaking for economic and social progress, job creation and a mutually beneficial business environment, calling it “an important pillar of the International Labour Organization (ILO) since its earliest days”.  

“Today, our primary task is to defeat the pandemic and rebuild lives, livelihoods, businesses, and economies”, he told the virtual Summit.

In building back, he underscored that workers and small business be protected, and everyone be given the opportunity to fulfil their potential. 

Businesses input

The UN chief urged businesses to engage with the multilateral system to create a “conducive global environment for decent work, investment, and sustainability”; and with the UN at the national level, to help ensure that multilateralism “works on the ground”.    

He also encouraged them to actively participate in national and global public-private dialogue and initiatives, stressing, “there must be space for them to do so”. 

Tripartite cooperation

ILO chief Guy Ryder highlighted the need for “conscious policy decisions and tripartite cooperation to overcome transformational challenges”, such as technological change and climate change, as well as COVID-19. 

Mr. Ryder also flagged that employers must continue to collaborate in social dialogue and maintain their commitment to both multilateralism and the ILO.

The IOE represents more than 50 million companies and is a key partner in the international multilateral system for over 100 years as the voice of business at the ILO, across the UN, the G20 richest countries and other emerging forums.

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Terrorism

Traumas of terrorism cannot be erased, but victims’ voices must never be forgotten

Newsroom

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In remembering and honouring all victims of terrorism, Secretary-General António Guterres said the UN stands by those who grieve and those who “continue to endure the physical and psychological wounds of terrorist atrocities”.

“Traumatic memories cannot be erased, but we can help victims and survivors by seeking truth, justice and reparation, amplifying their voices and upholding their human rights”, he stressed.

Keep spotlight on victims, even amid pandemic

This year’s commemoration takes place against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic, when vital services for victims, such as criminal justice processes and psychosocial support, have been interrupted, delayed or ended as Governments focus attention and resources on fighting the pandemic.

Moreover, many memorials and commemorations have been cancelled or moved online, hampering the ability of victims to find solace and comfort together. 

And the current restrictions have also forced the first-ever UN Global Congress of Victims of Terrorism has to be postponed until next year.

“But it is important that we keep a spotlight on this important issue,” stressed the UN chief.

“Remembering the victims of terrorism and doing more to support them is essential to help them rebuild their lives and heal”, said Mr. Guterres, including work with parliamentarians and governments to draft and adopt legislation and national strategies to help victims.

The Secretary-General vowed that “the UN stands in solidarity with all victims of terrorism – today and every day” and underscored the need to “ensure that those who have suffered are always heard and never forgotten”.

Terrorism unjustifiable

General Assembly President Tijjani Muhammad-Bande saluted the resilience of terrorist survivors and called the day “an opportunity to honour the memories of the innocent civilians who have lost their lives as a result of terrorist acts around the world”.

“Terrorism, in all forms and manifestations, can never be justified”, he stated. “Acts of terrorism everywhere must be strongly condemned”.
The UN commits to combating terrorism and the Assembly has adopted resolutions to curb the scourge while working to establish and maintain peace and security globally. 

Strengthen assistance

Mechanisms for survivors must be strengthened to safeguard a “full recovery, rehabilitation and re-integration into society through long-term multi-dimensional support”, stated the UN official.

“Together we can ensure that you live a full life defined by dignity and freedom. You are not alone in this journey. You are not forgotten”, concluded the Assembly president.

‘Human dimension’ 

Closing the event, Vladimir Voronkov, chief of the UN Office of Counter-Terrorism, maintained that victims represent “the very human dimension of terrorism”.

While terrorists try to depersonalize victims by reducing them to mere numbers or statistics, Mr. Voronkov maintained that “we have a responsibility to do the exact opposite”.

“We must see victims’ hopes, dreams and daily lives that have been shattered by terrorist violence – a shattering that carries on long after the attack is over”, he stated. “We must ensure their human rights are upheld and their needs are met”.

Reaffirming humanity

While acknowledging the “terrible reality of terrorism”, Mr. Voronkov flagged that the survivors shine as “examples of resilience, and beacons of hope, courage and solidarity in the face of adversity”.

In reaffirming “our common humanity”, he urged everyone to raise awareness of victims needs and rights.

“Let us commit to showing them that they are not alone and will never be forgotten”, concluded the Counter-Terrorism chief.

Survivors remember

At the virtual event, survivors shared their stories while under lockdown, agreeing that the long-term impacts of surviving any kind of an attack is that the traumatic experience never really goes away.

Tahir from Pakistan lost his wife in attack against the UN World Food Programme (WFP) office in Islamabad.  

“If you have an accident, you know how to cope with it. Terminal illness, you know how to cope with it. But there is no coping mechanism for a person who dies in an act of terror”, he said.

Meanwhile Nigeel’s father perished in the 1998 US Embassy attack in Kenya, when he was just months years old. 

The 22 year-old shared: “When you are growing, it really doesn’t have a heavy impact on you, but as life starts to unfold, mostly I’ll find myself asking if I do this and my dad was around, would he be proud of me?”

And Julie, from Australia, lost her 21-year-old daughter in the 2017 London Bridge attack.

“The Australian police came to our house and said ‘we have a body, still not confirmed’, so they recommended that we fly to London”, she recalled. “I can’t describe how devastating as a parent to lose a child in these circumstances is for the rest of your life”.

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