British Prime Minister David Cameron recently pledged that if he remains Prime Minister after the next election, a referendum will be held regarding Britain’s (precisely the UK’s) membership of the European Union (EU). Such a promise gives rise to concerns about the future of Britain, the EU and Europe.

Time and again throughout history millions of people have been forced to leave their place of origin to find safety as the result of armed conflict. As wars are fought individuals, families, and even whole communities take what they can carry and embark on hazardous journeys as they try to refuge, sometimes internally, sometimes internationally.

In an alternative universe, what if Yugoslavia still existed? NATO’s expansion, the Cold War still being waged, the so-called democratic western nations destroying freedoms in the name of democracy, we’re already living World War III.

Six decades after the first thought of creating a Union of European countries, the dominant debate on the supranational and intergovernmental EU structuring and virtue, seems to return and to push to policy differentiation.

Economic downturn; recession of plans and initiatives; €-crisis; Brexit and irredentism in the UK, Spain, Belgium, Denmark and Italy; lasting instability in the Euro-Med theatre (debt crisis of the Europe’s south – countries scrutinized and ridiculed under the nickname PIGS, coupled with the failed states all over the MENA); terrorism; historic low with Russia; influx of predominantly Muslim refugees from Levant in unprecedented numbers and intensities since the WWII exoduses; consequential growth of far-right parties that are exploiting fears from otherness which are now coupled with already urging labor and social justice concerns, generational unemployment and socio-cultural anxieties… The very fundaments of Europe are shaking.

The UNHCR reports that there are approximately 50 million refugees around the world at present. 50 million. That's the population of South Korea, or double the population of Shanghai, or one and a half times the population of California.

‘Not all those who wander are lost.’ J R R Tolkien

‘Demography is destiny.’ Ben Wattenberg and Richard M. Scammon

In 1825 the world’s population reached, for the first time, the figure of 1 billion with a doubling of the population 100 years later and on to 5.3 billion in 1990. It stands today at 7.5 billion.

The political system of Spain was the next stop for the most common currently phenomenon of the fragmented vote. The center-right and center-left bipartisan system was shaken and the new political adventure begins.

The recent regional elections in France proved that have been evolved in the context of emerging and immediately ending the Front National alarm. While the Front National (FN) won six of thirteen regions in the first round of the elections, in the second one it managed to lose them all. Les Republicains achieved to win the election in the second run, prevailing finally in seven regions.

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