Translator’s Preamble: What follows are sundry comments by Professor Ernesto Paolozzi, translated from the Italian by yours truly, on an analysis of mine which appeared recently on a future referendum called by Italy’s government on reforms.

In the last sixty years or so of the existence of the EU polity we have seen a baffling and somewhat bizarre phenomenon; namely this: while the EU has expanded from six original member countries in the 50s to twenty seven countries with others still waiting in line, albeit one has already exited, separatist and independence movements, redolent of a former rabid nationalism which produced two world wars, have also proliferated.

Distracted and entertained as we are from the latest circus-show by Donald Trump on behalf of the US presidential election, we may have lost sight of another reality-show being prepared in Italy and whose protagonists, when staged, will be Matteo Renzi, the country’s PM, and Beppe Grillo the founder of the Five Stars populist party.

After the Russian military victory over the Ottoman Empire in the 1877−1878 Russo-Ottoman War it was signed the San Stefano Treaty between these two states on March 3rd, 1878. According to the treaty, a Greater “San Stefano” Bulgaria, under the direct protection by Russia, had to be established within the borders of the Ottoman Empire.

EU leaders will meet in the Slovak capital on Sept. 16 to discuss the future of the organization. They will just meet, talk, have lunch, take pictures and say goodbye to each other. Once again nothing will happen, nothing will change. The fact is the EU leaders really do not know what actions to take but need to portray activity. Europeans are beginning to get used to the uselessness and ineffectiveness of such pathetic and costly events.

Use of themes like Islam and Muslims in a negative sense helps the presidential-PM candidates to campaign cheaply for a popular mandate - not only in third world countries like India where the Hindutva forces have got an advantage over other parties, and Israel where Jewish politicians use Palestinians, Islam and their illegal settlements for fascist Zionist advances but unfortunately also in former democracies like USA, France and Germany as well. The Sept-11 hoax continues to play a destructive role in polls.

There exist nowadays much confusion and consternation on the diagnosis and prognosis of the causes for the centrifugal forces presently afflicting the European Union.

While there have been a lot of discussions about the ‘moral obligation’ to let the refugees enter into the European Union (EU)against the ‘economic burden’ of refugees entering into the region, less has been talked about regarding the ‘economic benefit’ from such entrance of refugees. The EU’s problems of declining population and ageing labour force may well be solved by accommodating the refugees into the economic orbit of the EU.

"A European community grounded only in political and economic cooperation of the member states would lack an intrinsic common bond. It would be built upon sand." —Klaus Held

The first quote above quote is lifted from a brilliant essay published in the Fall of 2002 by Klaus Held titled, “The Origins of Europe with the Greek Discovery of the World”. The essay is a must read for anyone interested in exploring the very origins of European culture and concerned about its present trajectory and its future destination. Now that the whole Western world is in the midst of an unprecedented economic crisis, his words on the inadequacy of a mere economic vision with an attendant banal trade treaty parading as a constitution of sort, resonate with special vibrancy.

Simultaneously an issue about European identity has aroused along with European Union formation. It is said in the preamble "European Identity Declaration" 1973 that members of the Community decided to elaborate this document in order to reach more precise determination of their relations with other countries and further interaction on formation of unitary Europe.

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