Authors: Anna Kolotova & Zhao Wenbin*

Since the Soviet Union was disintegrated in late 1991, people are always puzzled by the fact that China and Russia have come to be so rapidly and closely that they have forged the entente. In retrospect, Joseph Nye Jr. warned 17 years ago, it would take very clumsy American policy and behavior to drive China and Russia more fully into each other’s arms.

Given that the geopolitical challenge in terms of the deployment of the THAAD in Korea (ROK) is perceived by China and Russia to upset the strategic equilibrium, Beijing is more anxious to deepen strategic partnership with Moscow, though the latter has expressed the obvious resentment against the specter of the U.S. hegemony over the past decades.

For sure, Chinese and Russian leaders won’t always agree, but their deepening cooperation and mistrust of the U.S. is here to stay. Yet, American leaders have shown few signs that they know how to navigate this new reality, let alone manage the competition among great powers as non-Western countries grown in stature. By comparison, both Beijing and Moscow have much more clearer common grounds to cooperate with each other in foreign affairs. For example, as President Trump’s rhetoric on DPRK’s nuclear program grows more bombastic, the world wonders if China and Russia will step up to help resolve the crisis. As expected, China endorsed the UN Security Council’s new round of sanctions on Kim Jong-un’s regime and Xi also promised putting “maximum pressure” on Pyongyang. Yet, when Beijing was ready to work with Washington, Xi and Putin have revealed more specific and substantial strategic partnership in dealing with the DPRK crisis, since both sides declared not to allow the status quo be jeopardized by anyone.

Clearly, this kind of strategic partnership between Moscow and Beijing now stretches far beyond the Korean Peninsula and will remain an important part of the international environment for years to come. For example, an unprecedented round of Sino-Russian joint naval exercises in the Baltic Sea over the summer sent an unambiguous message about this state of affairs to the U.S. and its NATO allies. Actually, since 2014 Moscow has dramatically ramped up sales to China of some of Russia’s most advanced defense equipment and technologies. Today on global issues such as the future governance of cyberspace, the defense of state sovereignty and Western pressure on human rights, China and Russia routinely present a united front. During his meeting with Russian Premier's visit to China on November 1, Xi reiterated that as Russia is China's largest neighboring country and comprehensive strategic partner of coordination, China will not change its clear-cut goal and develop and deepen bilateral relations with a view to building of a community with shared future for mankind.

Meantime, China is becoming central to the Russian economy’s future and to the stability of the Putin regime. Over the past four years, Beijing has turned into a major investor and lender to Russia, channeling billions through its state-controlled “policy banks” to members of Mr. Putin’s entourage and Russian companies subject to sanctions. Yet, as a rapidly rising power, China also aspires to cement the economically strategic ties with Russia. Now both sides have agreed to give full play to the coordinating role of the regular meeting mechanism between prime ministers, enhance cooperation in energy, equipment manufacturing, agriculture and aerospace and other fields. As Medvedev noted that almost all spheres of cooperation between them have achieved tangible results. A special attention was also paid to the trans-border projects and investment cooperation, which have a great value not only to China-Russia bilateral relations, but to the whole region as well. In particular, the Eurasian transport corridor project between Russia, China and some of member states of the EU is considered to be one of the outstanding regional-scale projects, and all governments involved put a great hope on it. With regards to the investment projects, it is reported that currently there are more than 70 high priority projects, 17 of which are already at the stage of active implementation. This was verified by Sergei Prikhodko, Deputy PM of Russia, who argued that for the last years more and more common interests have been focused on ecology and agriculture which are more directly to serve the lives of peoples and ecology of both countries.

Institutionally, Medvedev also reflects the positive attitude of Moscow towards their partner in Beijing. As he put it recently that there were already 22 Prime Ministers` regular meetings, which justify the presence of solid and effective basis for further development of relations and bilateral cooperation, and also the existence of already developed mechanisms for consutation and  solution of urgent issues of Sino-Russian strategic partnership and cooperation. Both governments actively participate in creation of new and improvement of already existing projects in different spheres of mutual cooperation. In addition, official representatives of the two sides expressed their ideas concerning integration processes in Europe, and the opportunities of future development of trans-regional relations and mechanisms.

No doubts, China’s economic and military relations with Russia rightly serve this purpose that it is not China’s intention to challenge American hegemony. Yet, if it was forced to react in the corner of dilemma, China has strategic partnership with Russia, even though both do not view their relations with the US as a zero-sum game. Considering this, Chinese Premier and Russian Prime Minister spoke highly of the sound progress made in China-Russia relations. Thus, China is willing to make joint efforts with Russia to consolidate mutual trust, expand cooperation in all fields and push forward the translation of cooperation visions into reality through the Prime Ministers' Regular Meeting, so as to ensure sustained, healthy and stable development of China- Russia relations, better benefit the two peoples as well as jointly safeguard world peace, stability, development and prosperity.

This is surely not a lip-service. On October 26, President Xi held phone talks with President Putin and pointed out that China can not develop in isolation from the rest of the world. Russia is China's comprehensive strategic partner of coordination, and whatever volatile changes may take place on the international level, China will not change its determination to deepen relations with Russia. China is willing to work with Russia to push bilateral relations for better development, and achieve more tangible results so as to bring benefits to the two peoples as well as people of all countries. In light of all mentioned above, it is clear that Sino-Russian strategic partnership has moved forward steadily and maturely.

* Zhao Wenbin, a student majored in History, Qufu Normal University, China

Anna Kolotova, a PhD student majored in International Relations, Jilin University

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