It is a radar system that uses the motion of the vehicle (such as a spacecraft) carrying it to simulate a system having a much larger antenna area and that is used to obtain high-resolution images of a surface (as of a planet).

Synthetic Aperture Radar is  as an advanced form of side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) which is the form of radar and it use of relative motion, between an antenna and its target region for obtain finer spatial resolution.SAR is implemented by mounting, on a moving platform of aircraft or spacecraft, a single beam-forming antenna from which a target scene is frequently illuminated with pulses of radio waves at wavelengths from 1mm to 1m. SAR images have extensive applications in remote sensing for the mapping of the surfaces of the earth. It has potential for agricultural mapping, environmental monitoring, resource mapping, disaster supervision, and military systems managements because of broad-area imaging at high resolution.

This radar system is useful in variety of ways that are as follows. It has ability of remote sensing which is a science and art of acquiring information (spectral, spatial, and temporal) about material objects, area, or phenomenon, without coming into physical contact with the objects, or area, or phenomenon under investigation. If India will get this system it will improve their existing capacity and posed a grave threat to Pakistan by infringes into their territory without using any physical force.Similarly, microwave-wave remote sensing is useful for monitoring the soil moisture, crop, vegetation, snow cover, geological features, coastal zone, urban extent, manmade targets, ocean wind vector, wave spectra, wave height and atmospheric parameters.Therefore,it will increased the ability of applications in spatial planning.

Synthetic aperture radar is used for a wide variety of environmental applications, such as monitoring of crop characteristics, deforestation, ice flows, oil spills, Roads network density, forest fire, mining, urban growth, etc. it will enhance the agriculture sector of India by providing them with information before hand as result they can predict about environmental changes. On the other, Pakistan relies mainly on other countries to assess their changing environmental conditions. India can use this information against Pakistan by giving wrong or in correct information that can adversely affect their agriculture sector.         

Surveying is needed for land measurements and mapping resources located in the surface of earth.  Synthetic Aperture Radar is advance sources for investigation, observation, and targeting of any objects of ground. SAR provides adequately high resolution to differentiate terrain features and to identify selected man made targets by surveying over SAR satellite imagery data. India will use this surveying technique to explore natural resources inside their country. India can use this method to gather information about resources located inside Pakistan.             

The three dimensional (3D) data of Surface is required for monitoring of area and implementation of various planning related to topography. The Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) data can be acquired using two antennas on one aircraft or by flying two slightly offset passes of an aircraft with a single antenna. So the IFSAR can be used to generate very accurate surface profile maps of the terrain for several types of planning, such has dam construction, road construction, wind mill site. Synthetic aperture radars have ability to penetrate into materials which are optically opaque, and thus not visible by optical s. According to few recent studies observed that the SAR may provide a limited capability for imaging selected underground targets, such as utility lines, arms caches, bunkers, mines, etc. The penetration depth depend on soil conditions, its moisture content, conductivity, and target size. For example in dry sand, it can penetrate to depths of 10 meters. The three dimensional imaging will equip India with military advantage as they will have a capability to monitor the Pakistani territory without any violation of state sovereignty.   

To conclude the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology provides information about the terrain, structural information for geologists to explore and targeting information to military operations. There are many other applications for this technology. This technology is not only use for civilian purpose but also effective for military purposes especially during military operations against enemy. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) technology is cost effective. If India acquired this radar system it would become a source of instability and will increase the chances of conflict in South Asia.  

Mehwish Akram

Mehwish Akram holds masters degree in International Relations and currently doing M Phil in Political Science. Her areas of interest are Democracy, Political theory and Environmental politics .