It is apparent that in 2009 as a major point of this “enlargement” policy, the EU launched the Eastern Partnership program toward Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine, to outline pivotal routes headed for democratic development.
Up to the current time, Russia as a bitter carrot does have large scale intense interests and ambitions in Post-Soviet countries, at the same time, is not going to reconcile easily with the extensive democratic involvement and free market policy of the EU. As a consequence of the successful initiative of ENP, the EU has conducted explicitly “Visa Liberalisation Dialogues” with Ukraine, Moldova, and Georgia. Eventually, through these dialogues, the EU defined ongoing steps in the direction of the long-term goal of visa-free travel on a continuous basis, underpinned that conditions for well-managed and secure mobility within the region. As a regional foe, Russia initiated the operation of this union in 2014 as a response to enlargement program of the EU in the region to induce these countries to the Eurasian Economic Union to keep its hegemonic spirit over these countries.
Over the history, Armenia had been the right hand of Russia and prone to the Russian manners and in turn, Russia, by all means, supported it in the region. Therefore, the Pro-Russian policy of Armenia impedes the rational implementation of the ENP in the country. When it comes to Belarus, more worryingly the commotion embraces these countries in the shadow of human rights situation and the issue of governmental structures that put the barriers in front of the EU initiatives. The side of Azerbaijan demonstrating the doubled positions also accentuates that it should not intend to freely tackle these problems until the restoration of territorial integrity and sovereignty, the returning of internally displaced persons to their homeland, as well as the resolving the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in the region.
In today’s globalized world the crucial question is based on what we expect from the ENP program regarding implementation of its multilateral framework in conjunction with partner countries. Does it fail or thrive in future expectancy?! - It would be needed to cite that ENP is a deep-seated groundwork of the implementation of reforms and guarantee of democratic rules and norms within the framework of international law in regard to the partner countries However, the arduous processes of the world order compel the EU to change its basic principles, positions as well as instruments by taking into account the different stances of partner countries. Here, the EU first and foremost should have to take the Russian keen attitudes and intentions into account in advance and persuade Russia to get rid of zero sum approach. Today, the prevention of “weaknesses” of the EU instruments demands the foundation of many-sided, reasonable rules and principles, completion of internal restructuring based on the comprehensive or multilateral approach.
Today, the challenges that EU faces is unavoidable. To tackle the problems that the EU is facing first and foremost, it should have to undertake fundamental responsibilities and duties concerning the logical arrangement or the strengthening of regional, mainly sub-regional relations with partner countries. Today, the EU should have to avoid Eurocentric illusion if it needs more close and transparent relations with partner countries. The unified or single set of values and standards has already failed; therefore the EU has to subject to the comprehensive approach that will be able to respond the different positions and interests of partner countries. In fact, the EU needs to adjust the set of values, incentives, and priorities of democracy in each partner country by taking into account the particular situation. It needs to give a comprehensive answer to the needs of partner countries. For coming years, it requires the establishment of comprehensive external policy for not only partner countries including EaP countries, and in particular, MENA countries but also other international actors namely Turkey, Gulf States and Russia as well. Regarding the fact that Turkey as a crucial energy partner plays a significant role in the European energy security. Thereby, the EU is in the top need of a stronger and more integrated voice on this issue to keep its influence in partner countries. The disparities between “state and society” should have to be eliminated in partner countries; furthermore, they have to engage in the sensible reforms and do these initiatives adequately. The basis of the democratic changes have always engendered within society, in this case, through encouraging of the bottom-up approach, partner countries can succeed the middle path toward the West and can be able to implement the instruments of the EU gradually.