The Northern Pass Transmission targets the state of New Hampshire.The media reports polls say 50% of New Hampshire opposes it.From Quebec, Canada to Concord, NH, you see only signs of opposition to Northern Pass. Bumper stickers against it in French are seen on the Canadian side. On the US side hundreds, perhaps thousands of hand-painted postersin English ‘Northern Pass Kiss my Ass’ and commercially printed ones in French‘Enterrez-le’ (Bury It) line the route south to Concord.A public referendum would kill the proposal. There’s been no talk of referendums.
Northern Pass is a collaboration between Boston-based Eversource Energyand Hydro-Quebec, the Quebec State Utilities. Their plan isto construct power lines from Quebec to Concord, NH cutting through 192 miles of NH forest.
In the NH media the arguments against it revolve around the environmental impacts and potential declines in real estate values and tourism. There are more fundamentalreasons not to allow Northern Pass but those have not been raised. Northern Pass is billed as ‘green energy’ because its 90% hydroelectric power. But ‘green’ implies more than simply hydroelectric. Green means sustainable. Regarding this criteria scrutiny of Northern Pass has been noticeably absent in the media. The Northern Pass model is archaic.
Robert Hebner, Director of the University of Texas/ Austin Center for Electomechanics says that transmitting thousands of megawatts long distances is a thing of the past.Smaller grids are the future and threat to big utility companies. The grid-expanding Eversource-HydroQuebec deal is a shrewdmaneuver to prevent losses in the face of a grid-break up.
Small grids are more logical. They are more sustainable, a better defense against climate change. A hotter climate means more storms and higher energy storms.In big grids millions lose power with a flood, a lightning strike, a power line downed by wind, snow or a tree. Heat wavesproduce extreme demand by millions resulting in brownouts and blackouts. Human operator erroron a big grid means millions lose power.
Hydro-Quebec is famous for power failures. For example, a1989 space storm that interrupted service at Hydro-Quebec caused outages in Quebec and in turn New York City affecting 6 million people for 9 hours. The there was the 1998 ice storm. It destroyed transmission towers and caused massive prolonged power outages in Quebec. In 1999 a wind storm downed Hydro-Quebec transmission lines. It cutting power to 600,000 people for over a week.In 2006 winds blow down Hydro-Quebec power lines. It left 450,000 without power.
The risks of big grids are well documented but absent from the debate on Northern Pass. Big grids fail big. Our experience with big gridsover the last 50 yearsis acomedy of errors. In 2003 fallen tree’s cut power to 8.5 million people in 17 states for two weeks people in Hurricane Sandy on the US’s east coast. In 2012, hundreds of millions lost power due to a surge in demand during a heat wave.In 2012 a wind storm cut power to 4.2 million customers in 11 states in the midwest for 10 days. In 2011 downed trees and wires caused a ten-day black out for three million customers in Mid-Atlantic states and New England. In 2011 hot weather and high demand after the end of the cause 12 hour outage , affecting 2.7 million people in Arizona and California which was importing power from Arizona. In 2003 two cables failed in London, and 250,000 customers lost power. In 2003 tree trimming caused a transmission line to short circuit. 50 million people- 10 million in Canada and 40 million in the US, were without power for four days. In 1998 lightning struck a Minnesota transmission line causing a separation of the northern Midwest from the Eastern grid. 52,000 people in upper Midwest, Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan lost power for 19 hours. In 1996 an Idaho transmission line overheated and sagged into a tree, which tripped relays to Wyoming coal plants. Two million people in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico lost power for minutes to hours. In 1996 inadequate tree trimming shorted-circuited Washington state transmission lines which tripped hydro turbines at an Oregon Dam. 7.5 million customers lost power in seven western U.S. states, two Canadian provinces, and Baja California, Mexico for up to six hours.In 1982 high winds knocked one transmission tower over causing a domino effect, as tower fell on tower. Five million people on the west coast lost power.In 1977 lightning struck several power lines shutting Indian Point No. 3 nuclear plant, causing power surges, overloads and disconnecting New York City from the North East grid. Nine million people in New York City lost power. Looting lasted for 26 hours. In 1965 a wrong setting on a transmission system device near Niagara Falls led to other human errors which lead to 30 million people losing power for 13 hours in the Central Northeast US and Ontario.
Terrorism is a bigger risk for bigger grids. Power failures can result from hacking. A Vermont electric utility was hacked by Russians. It was unaffected only because it was not connected to the bigger grid. In 2015 Kiev, Ukraine lost power as result of suspected Russian hacking.
It is irrelevant that Northern Pass makes no sense. There is a precedent here for senseless things happening. History is about to repeat itself. US and Canadian corporations will muscle Northern Pass though the same way the overwhelmingly unpopular Canadian Natural gas pipeline was muscled through. In VT they just dug it. They heck with permits.The corporate attitude was ‘let them stop us’. Maybe the term ‘leader of the free world’ refers to corporate freedom.
Renewables and Improved Cooling Technologies Key to Reducing India’s Water Use
A new policy brief co-authored by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and the World Resources Institute (WRI) finds that increasing the share of renewables, in particular solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind, in India’s power mix, and implementing changes in cooling technologies mandated for thermal power plants would not only lower carbon emissions intensity, but also substantially reduce water withdrawal and consumption intensity of power generation.
The brief, Water Use in India’s Power Generation – Impact of Renewables and Improved Cooling Technologies to 2030, finds that depending on the future energy pathways (IRENA’s REmap 2030 and the Central Electricity Authority of India), a power sector (excluding hydroelectricity) transformation driven by solar PV and wind, coupled with improved cooling technologies in thermal and other renewable power plants, could yield as much as an 84% decrease in water withdrawal intensity by 2030, lower annual water consumption intensity by 25% and reduce carbon emissions intensity by 43%, compared to 2014 levels. It builds off of the findings of Parched Power: Water Demands, Risks, and Opportunities for India’s Power Sector, also launched today by WRI.
“India has emerged as a global leader in renewable energy achieving record-level growth in deployment, rapid cost reductions and many socio-economic benefits of the energy transformation.” said Dr Henning Wuester, IRENA Director of the Knowledge, Policy and Finance Centre (KPFC). “Scaling up the use of renewables, especially solar PV and wind, will yield further benefits, in particular long-term reductions in the dependency of the power sector on freshwater.”
More than four-fifths of India’s electricity is generated from coal, gas and nuclear power plants which rely significantly on freshwater for cooling purposes. Moreover, the power sector’s share in national water consumption is projected to grow from 1.4% to 9% between 2025 and 2050, placing further stress on water resources. Renewable energy, with the added potential to reduce both water demand and carbon emissions, must hence be at the core of India’s energy future.
“India’s move towards renewable energy is essential, especially as water stress puts increasing pressure on India’s thermal power plants,” said Dr O.P. Agarwal, CEO, WRI India. “Water risks to thermal power plants cannot be ignored when considering the cost of thermal energy. Renewables, especially solar PV and wind energy, present a win-win solution for both water and climate.”
The joint brief was launched at the World Future Energy Summit 2018 in Abu Dhabi.
Going Long Term: US Nuclear Power Plants Could Extend Operating Life to 80 Years
The last couple of decades have witnessed increased interest in the extension of the operating life of nuclear power plants. Extending the life of a plant is more economical than building a new one, and where it makes business sense, many plant operators in the United States are seeking licence renewals. This helps avoid supply shortages and support the country in reducing carbon emissions.
“It is very important for us as a world community to care how electricity is produced,” said Maria Korsnick, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Nuclear Energy Institute. “You can produce electricity of an intermittent nature, like wind and solar, but you are going to also need 24/7 baseload energy supply that is kind to the environment, and nuclear is just that.”
The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issues licences for nuclear power plants to operate for up to 40 years and allows licences to be renewed for up to 20 years with every renewal application, as long as operators prove that the effects of ageing on certain plant structures and components will be adequately managed.
About 90 percent of US plants have already renewed their licences once, extending their operation to 60 years. But most of these will soon reach the end of their 60-year term. If they cease to operate or are not replaced by new plants, the percentage of energy generated from nuclear will drop. A subsequent renewal extends a plant’s operation from 60 to 80 years.
Nuclear provides 20 percent of the United States’ electricity supply and more than 60 percent of the country’s CO2 emissions-free generation. Electricity demand is expected to rise by more than 30 percent by 2035.
To obtain licence renewal, a plant must provide the NRC with an assessment of the technical aspects of plant ageing and show how any issues will be managed safely. This includes review of system metals, welds and piping, concrete, electrical cables and reactor pressure vessels. It must also evaluate potential impact on the environment, assuming the plant will operate for another 20 years. The NRC verifies evaluations through inspection and audits, and its reviews of licence renewal applications can last anywhere between 22 and 30 months.
“In the very beginning, an NRC review took years to complete,” Korsnick said. “Now that the process is better understood, we are just under two years. For subsequent licence renewal, we will probably get the process down to 18 months.”
While there have not been any subsequent licence renewals yet, three plants have already expressed their intent to submit an application for such renewal.
“If a subsequent renewal is granted and plants are allowed to operate for 80 years, NRC could see increased interest by other utilities,” said Allen Hiser, Senior Technical Advisor for Licence Renewal Ageing Management at NRC. “NRC experienced a similar trend when the original licence renewals were granted back in 2000.”
Coping with government and market challenges
Most US Government policies favour renewables over nuclear, and according to Korsnick the market does not value all of the attributes that the nuclear plants bring. Three plants in the past six years have already shut down even before their original licence expired because they could not make sufficient money in the current market place. Korsnick maintains that the markets must be improved so that they value the products that nuclear is bringing — products that include clean air, constant 24/7 power and continuous operation for at least 18 months before needing to refuel. Full recognition of these benefits would prevent additional plants from shutting down prematurely.
“Fundamentally we want an electricity grid that boasts a diversity of generating technologies and that appropriately values the core attributes of each technology and the benefits they deliver to society,” Korsnick said.
The IAEA and long-term operation
The IAEA has benefited from NRC support in its long-term operation (LTO) activities. The NRC was an early funder and active participant in the IAEA International Generic Ageing Lessons Learned (IGALL) programme, which used technical information from the NRC’s Generic Ageing Lessons Learned report as its starting point. Other IAEA Member States added data for their plants to that US information, including information for pressurized heavy water reactor designs.
The USA has been an active participant in other IAEA activities related to LTO, including the development of safety guides on ageing management and LTO and presenting LTO workshops for international regulators and plants. The US also continues to provide expertise during IAEA Safety Aspects of Long-Term Operation (SALTO) missions to countries in Europe, Asia, North and South America.
New Global Commission to Examine Geopolitics of Energy Transformation
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), has today launched the Global Commission on the Geopolitics of Energy Transformation, with the support of the governments of Germany, Norway and the United Arab Emirates. The Commission will examine the immediate and longer-term geopolitical implications of global energy transformation driven by large scale-up of renewable energy in the context of global efforts to tackle climate change and advance sustainable development. The Commission will be chaired by Mr. Olafur Grimsson, the former President of Iceland.
“The global energy landscape is witnessing rapid and disruptive change that will have far reaching effects on geopolitical dynamics,” said Adnan Z. Amin, IRENA Director-General. “Renewable energy resources are abundant, sustainable and have the power to significantly improve energy access, security and independence.
“At the same time, the large-scale deployment of variable sources of renewable energy such as solar PV and wind, is fostering greater cross-border energy trade and cooperation between nations,” continued Mr. Amin. “Understanding these changing dynamics in a way that informs policy makers, will be the primary goal of the commission.”
“I am delighted to chair the Global Commission on the Geopolitics of Energy Transformation, and congratulate IRENA on this timely initiative,” said Mr. Olafur Grimsson, former President of Iceland. “The geopolitical implications of energy transformation is becoming one of the most debated issues in the global energy agenda. The Commission can make an important contribution to these global discussions, on the basis of solid evidence and analysis as well as a diverse range of perspectives,” added Mr. Grimsson.
While most geopolitical analyses of energy related issues have focused on conventional fuels such as oil and gas, the Commission will review the implications of the ongoing global energy transformation underpinned by the surge in renewables and report on how it would impact the geopolitics of energy based on rigorous and credible evidence.
The Commission will be composed by twelve leaders and experts on international energy and global security issues, with particular emphasis given to ensuring diverse geographical and expert background representation. The Commission will present its report at the 9th Session of the IRENA Assembly in January 2019.
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