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Two West African scholars scoop top prize for labour market, taxation research

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Two West African economists have emerged at the top from a selection of 36 academic papers presented at the 12th African Economic Conference for proposing reforms, including the de-regulation of the labour markets and the tax administration reforms aimed at raising government revenue.

Dr. Adam Elhiraika, Director of the Microeconomic Policy Division at the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), announced Abidemi Adegboye, a doctorate student at the University of Benin, Nigeria, as the winner of the top paper prize, for his paper on “Economic regulation and employment elasticity of growth in Sub-Saharan Africa,” at the just-concluded African Economic Conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The paper was selected for its relevance to the theme of the conference, which focused on the governance reforms required to achieve structural transformation.

The conference, which took place from December 4-6, 2017, provided a forum for leading thinkers and economic practitioners to discuss the emerging issues in Africa with a view to promoting knowledge management and important drivers of policy dialogue and implementation.

Senegalese economics lecturer, Ameth Saloum Ndiaye, from the Department of Economics at the University of Cheikh Anta Diop, Senegal, was awarded the second-best paper prize, for his research on the impact of institutional tax reform and its contribution to the improved well-being in Senegal.

The paper was among those presented during the three-day conference, at the headquarters of the ECA in Addis Ababa, which was also attended by the Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn, several African dignitaries, economists and advisors of senior state officials.

In his paper, Adegboye examined the impact of economic regulation on the labour markets in 37 African countries and concluded that structural changes and population changes were not adequate to generate economic growth and create employment in the economy.

There were only five countries from all African economies that had industry as the largest sector in their GDP; and none of the countries had industry as the largest employment sector.

The paper examined employment trends in several African countries. The researcher noted there were only eight countries that had industry as the largest sector in GDP. However, no country had industry as the largest sector in employment. In addition to the initial five countries, three countries – Angola, Congo and Djibouti – had joined the rank on countries with largest industry share in GDP.

For most of the countries (including Nigeria), agriculture was the largest sector in terms of both GDP and employment for the initial year, but the services sector took over as the largest sector both in terms of GDP share and employment in the final year.

The researcher also noted that though the labour force in the region is largely involved in some forms of activity, the jobs being performed do not guarantee their livelihood.

Adegboye also discovered that regulations and government involvement tend to play essential roles in facilitating employment during periods of economic growth. In pursuing employment enhancing growth, regulatory institutions in most countries could function in the areas of controlling excessive population growth, ensuring smooth factor reallocation and aiding balanced growth, he recommended.

In this direction, policies that regulate labour market and other economic activities are essential in aiding feasible employment outcomes given the structural bottlenecks in many African economies.

In his paper, Ndiaye said tax administration reforms have both positive and negative impacts on the collection of revenue depending on how the measurement is done, which proves that the scientific methods used to discover the weaknesses and strengths of both systems remain unreliable.

He said the reform measures depended on the new policies introduced by the tax authorities each year as well as the tax related reforms and those geared towards the tax collection institution.

The conference is jointly organized each year by the African Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme and UN Economic Commission for Africa. Next year’s edition will be hosted by UNDP. The venue and theme of the meeting will be announced at a later date.

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Supporting tourism development in Africa through better measurement

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In an effort to better measure tourism growth and development in Africa, UNWTO signed a Cooperation Agreement with the Nigeria Tourism Development Corporation for the Strengthening of the National Tourism Statistical System of Nigeria and the Development of a Tourism Satellite Account.

UNWTO is committed to developing tourism measurement for furthering knowledge of the sector, monitoring progress, evaluating impact, promoting results-focused management, and highlighting strategic issues for policy objectives.

On the occasion of the meeting between UNWTO Secretary-General, Zurab Pololikashvili, and the Minister of Information and Culture of Nigeria, Mr. Lai Mohammed, the agreement to host the Sixty-First meeting of the UNWTO Commission for Africa and the Seminar on ‘Tourism Statistics: A Catalyst for Development’ in Nigerian capital, Abuja, from 4 to 6 June 2018, was signed.

The meetings will be open to the participation of UNWTO Member States and Affiliate Members, as well as invited delegations and representatives of the tourism and related sectors. Officials of immigration departments, national statistics bureaus, central banks and other relevant stakeholders will be invited to join.

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Causes of Rohingya refugee crisis originate in Myanmar- solutions must be found there

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“We are now in a race against time as a major new emergency looms,” United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi told the Security Council via videolink from Geneva, Switzerland.

He said that the Kutupalong area in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar is now the largest refugee settlement in the world, and with the monsoon season to start in March, 107,000 refugees are estimated to be living in areas prone to flooding or landslides.

“The [Bangladeshi] Government is steering a massive emergency preparedness effort, but international support must be stepped up to avert a catastrophe,” he said, stressing that “as we have repeatedly said, resolving this crisis means finding solutions inside Myanmar.”

He said that conditions are not yet conducive to the voluntary repatriation of Rohingya refugees to Myanmar.

The refugee crisis erupted in late August when Myanmar armed forces launched a security operation in the north of Rakhine State, driving thousands of children, women and men to flee over the border to Bangladesh in search of safety.

“The causes of their flight have not been addressed, and we have yet to see substantive progress on addressing the exclusion and denial of rights that has deepened over the last decades, rooted in their lack of citizenship,” Mr. Grandi said.

“It is time to bring an end to this repeated, devastating cycle of violence, displacement and statelessness to invest in tangible, substantial measures that will start to overcome the profound exclusion that the Rohingya community have endured for far too long,” he added.

Also addressing the Council was UN Assistant Secretary-General for Political Affairs Miroslav Jenca, who said that while there has been certain progress on the three priorities laid out by the Secretary-General, not all have been implemented thus far.

Turning first to the need to end violence and improve the security situation, he said that although large-scale acts of violence have subsided, concerns about threats and intimidation against the remaining Rohingya population from Bamar and Rakhine communities, as well as from militia and security forces in Rakhine state, persist.

Second, the UN does not have sufficient access to make a meaningful assessment of the humanitarian or human rights situation in Rakhine.

As for the third point, which is voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced people to their places of origin or choice, Mr. Jenca said the Government has taken some high-level steps to advance this process, including the convening of an Advisory Board, whose recommendations include the inclusion of the UN at an early stage, soonest full humanitarian access, wider media access, and the formation of an independent fact-finding commission.

Mr. Jenca called on the authorities in Myanmar to release the arrested two Reuters journalists and respect the right to freedom of expression and information.

Reuters has now published the story these journalists were working on, a deeply disturbing account of the execution of 10 Rohingya men in Inn Din village (Maungdaw) in northern Rakhine state,he said, while the Associated Press (AP) has also published a report of five mass graves in Gudar Pyin village (Buthidaung).

“These and other shocking reports of grave abuses demand our attention and action, for the sake of lasting peace and justice,” he said.

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UN agency sets ambitious target to reduce hunger and poverty for millions worldwide

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The total, $3.5 billion, announced Tuesday by the 176 member States of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) will enable the UN agency expand its projects and programmes to benefit 47 million smallholder farmers with improved technology, finance and knowledge; improve market access for 46 million; and build resilience to climate change impact of another 24 million.

“To achieve these goals, we will intensify our work on climate, nutrition and gender –  key focus areas which will be mainstreamed across our portfolio,” said IFAD President Gilbert F. Houngbo.

“We will also sharpen our focus on youth employment in order to meet one of the most pressing challenges faced by the world today.”

The renewed commitment from IFAD member States could not come at a more critical moment.

Last September, newly released figures showed that hunger increased for the first time in 10 years affecting 815 million people in 2016, up 38 million from 2015 because of climate change and protracted crises.

Furthermore, as nearly 75 per cent of the world’s poorest and hungry people live in rural areas, almost 90 per cent the contributions will go to lower-income and lower-middle income countries. An estimated 25 to 30 per cent will be invested in fragile situations.

The commitment is also timely given the global push to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, especially Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 1 and 2 on on ending poverty in all its forms, and ending hunger and achieving food security, respectively.

“We believe that IFAD has a unique role to play, not only as an investor but as a trusted broker, an assembler of development finance, and a proven innovator sharing its knowledge and expertise,” said Mr. Houngbo.

A specialized agency of the UN, IFAD is devoted exclusively to investing in rural areas and harnessing the potential of smallholder farmers and other rural people to contribute to sustainable development.

Since its founding in 1977, IFAD has received approximately $8.5 billion in member State contributions, which have financed investments of $19.7 billion and mobilized a further $27.1 billion from domestic and international partners. From 2010-2015, it is estimated that IFAD-supported projects lifted 24 million people out of poverty.

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