According to the experts, the world society would most likely be hit by man-made climate change in near future. According to environment optimist, rise in earth’s temperature above 2C is healthy for vegetation. However, Professor Richard Tol leans more towards the disadvantages of a rising temperature than the positive impacts on society.
He was of the view that environmental degradation is a myth not reality, but he negates in his recent statements his previous position regarding environmental degradation. Therefore, those who used to cite him as an environmental optimist are trying to figure out why he is going against his previous position on climate change. One can observe that rise in temperature is already melting the ice caps of Arctic region and altering the patterns of seasons in different parts around the world. Similarly, the amount of carbon emission is increasing with rapid economic growth of various states throughout the world. For example, India and China as they are using coal for their industries that is not only increasing the amount of carbon emission, but also have adverse effects on people living in this part of world by increasing air pollution.
According to recent report of Stanford’s University of 2015 revealed the method used to measure the temperature was unsuitable to measure temperature as it is for the statistical tools of biology and physics. Consequently, it can be empirically proven that the ice sheet of Arctic region is melting and it is posing a great threat of submergence of coastal areas of the world like Maldives by 2050. However, it is not suitable to gauge the temperature of geophysical Processes of earth. Stanford report on rising temperature of earth claims that the global temperature is constantly rising; it has never paused as per observation of IPCC.
On the other hand, the summers are long and hotter from the last few years. The intensity of summers is increasing and has killed thousands of people across the globe in various regions of the world, for example, Europe and America are cases in point. Now we have long summers and a short winter that is altered by man-made problem. Similar, burning of hydrocarbon is affecting the pattern of seasons and raising the temperature level. Green house gas is another major contributing factor that is shifting the span of seasons.
The temperature of earth is increasing rapidly due to increased human consumption of energy, as they are consuming more than their needs, consumerism has reached its peak, because it is obtained at cost of environmental degradation. Environment refugee is a term used to define people who are displaced due environmental problems. The people of Maldives, for example, are shifting to other places throughout the world as they are facing a threat of submergence . In addition, Bangladesh will also have to face same threat like Maldives in few years, since it is a coastal area. However, the negligence of political actors and certain vested interests have politicized the issue of climate change. The tactics of delaying is used by major players to avoid implementation of strict rules and regulations related to environment, as it will affect their growth by slowing down the rate of growth.
Moreover, environmental degradation also poses a major threat for human security. The threat is not only being faced by the under-developed world, rather the developed world is also a victim or direct target of climate related disasters. The fear of humans being left on the planet as the only specie is something that is not given due attention by states at large. For them, it is not a matter of immediate concern. Consequently, their policies are not aimed at preventing environmental degradation. The long term threat of environmental degradation to whole humanity is often overlooked.
It is important to understand that nature takes years to recycle and reproduce consumed resources by humans, for example, hydrocarbon and the formation of fossil-fuel takes thousands of years to replenish. Likewise, the recent pace of human development is making more difficult for nature to process them, which ultimately leads to scarcity of resources as well. Furthermore, the dumping of nuclear waste in oceans is not only contaminating water, but it also has adverse effects on surroundings in form of emission of radiation from nuclear waste.
To conclude, I would say that environmental degradation is not only a problem that is restricted to particular area or region, it has a global effect. For example, ozone depletion is equally affecting all countries around the world regardless of their geographical location. Without collective effort of all stakeholders, environmental degradation cannot be managed. Therefore, it would not be wrong to say that all stake holders ought to unite in order counter the threat of environmental degradation to minimize the cycles of natural disasters, for example, earth quakes, floods and intense heat waves.
 RETHINKING CLIMATE REFUGEES AND CLIMATE CONFLICT: RHETORIC, REALITY AND THE POLITICS OF POLICY DISCOURSE,” Journal of International Development, no. 2010
India to host World Environment Day 2018
Today, Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, and Erik Solheim, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and Head of UN Environment, jointly announced that India will be hosting the global World Environment Day celebrations on 5 June 2018.
“Beat Plastic Pollution”, the theme for World Environment 2018, urges governments, industry, communities, and individuals to come together and explore sustainable alternatives and urgently reduce the production and excessive use of single-use plastic polluting our oceans, damaging marine life and threatening human health.
“India is excited to host the World Environment Day this year on June 5. Indian philosophy and lifestyle has long been rooted in the concept of co-existence with nature. We are committed to making Planet Earth a cleaner and greener place”, said Dr. Harsh Vardhan.
He added: “If each and every one of us does at least one green good deed daily towards our Green Social Responsibility, there will be billions of green good deeds daily on the planet.”
The Government of India has committed to organizing and promoting the World Environment Day celebrations through a series of engaging activities and events generating strong public interest and participation. From pan-Indian plastic clean-up drives in public areas, national reserves and forests to simultaneous beach clean-up activities – India will lead the initiative by setting an example.
“India will be a great global host of 2018’s World Environment Day celebrations,” said Erik Solheim at the announcement on Monday.
He added: “The country has demonstrated tremendous global leadership on climate change and the need to shift to a low carbon economy, and India will now help galvanize greater action on plastics pollution. It’s a global emergency affecting every aspect of our lives. It’s in the water we drink and the food we eat. It’s destroying our beaches and oceans. India will now be leading the push to save our oceans and planet.”
India is emerging as a leader, given it has one of the highest recycling rates in the world. It can be instrumental in combating plastic pollution. By hosting World Environment Day 2018, the Indian government is accelerating its leadership on an issue of tremendous magnitude.
World Environment Day is a UN Environment-led global event, the single largest celebration of our environment each year, which takes place on June 5 and is celebrated by thousands of communities worldwide.
Since it began in 1972, it has grown to become a global platform for public outreach that is widely celebrated across the globe.
Most of all, World Environment Day is a day of everyone around the world to take ownership of their environment and to actively engage in the protection of our earth.
Plastic Pollution facts:
- Every year the world uses 500 billion plastic bags
- Each year, at least 8 million tonnes of plastic end up in the oceans, the equivalent of a full garbage truck every minute.
- In the last decade, we produced more plastic than in the whole last century
- 50 percent of the plastic we use is single-use or disposable
- We buy 1 million plastic bottles every minute
- Plastic makes up 10% of all of the waste we generate
Coral reefs: We continue to take more than we give
Figures released today on international financial support being given to protect and sustainably manage the world’s coral reefs reveal funding contributions are not only inadequate, but disproportionate to how much the fragile ecosystems offer humans in food, livelihoods, medicine and environmental protection.
Coral reef ecosystems provide society with resources and services worth $375 billion per year. They house 25 percent of all marine life, feeding hundreds of millions of people; they enable discovery of new pharmaceuticals and provide work and income through the tourism and fisheries industries.
Yet we have lost at least one fifth of the world’s coral reefs, with some estimates placing the loss of live coral as high as 50 per cent. These vital ecosystems are being rapidly degraded as a result of warming sea temperatures due to climate change, overfishing, destructive fishing, ocean acidification, and a range of land-based activities. A recent study in the Asia-Pacific region also found that coral reefs are contaminated by 11 billion pieces of plastic, which are leading to coral disease.
The coral reef funding analysis, conducted by UN Environment, the International Coral Reef Initiative and the UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, found that in the 83 countries surveyed, there was an increase in funding between 2010 and 2016 in response to global and regional policy commitments on environmental management and protection, but that the more than $1.9 billion currently being invested is not commensurate with the economic and social gains we make from coral reefs.
The value of a single hectare of coral reef in terms of tourism, shoreline protection and fisheries is, on average, $130,000 per year, and as much as $1.25 million where the tourism sector is large. Travel and tourism, much of it dependent on reefs, contribute a third of the GDP in the Caribbean for example, and as much as 80 percent in the Maldives.
Coastal fisheries supported by coral reefs contribute to food security of hundreds of millions of coastal dwellers, providing 70 per cent of the dietary protein of Pacific islanders. Coral reef organisms are a source of many medicines, such as antiviral drugs and the anticancer agent Ara-C used in chemotherapy for leukemia and lymphoma.
The analysis reveals annual investment in maintaining healthy reefs through overseas development assistance is only 0.07 percent of the value of the societal benefits we draw from them. And of this investment, the majority of funding for work related to coral reefs and associated ecosystems is driven by a small number of funders, with nearly three-quarters of all projects consisting of small-scale initiatives.
Funded projects for coral reefs and associated ecosystems were identified in a total of 83 countries and territories, out of more than 100 countries and territories where tropical corals are known to exist. Some countries with a large coral reef area were found to be receiving comparatively low amounts of donor funding per unit area of reef. Out of the 314 projects surveyed, 279 focused on a single country – Tuvalu.
Funding is essential for sustainable management of coral reefs and associated ecosystems worldwide. But greater consideration of these ecosystems as blue economy assets is required, both in the public and private sector, to enable more and more diverse investment, and in the longer term reduce reliance on donor funding.
“If greater action is not taken today, the planet could lose its live coral reefs and with them a large number of the world’s marine species by 2050,” said Gabriel Grimsditch of UN Environment’s Marine and Coastal Ecosystems Branch.
“The necessary change will only be possible when mindsets change, in the general public, among financial decision makers, and also in the environment sector.”
The Funding Analysis was conducted by UN Environment, the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) and the UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre, and was funded by the Government of France.
2018: The International Year of the Reef
The International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) has declared 2018 the International Year of the Reef. UN Environment together with partner organizations is helping to drive a worldwide campaign to raise awareness about the value and importance of coral reefs and threats to their sustainability, and to motivate people to take action to protect them. All individuals, corporations, schools, governments, and organizations are welcome and actively encouraged to participate in IYOR 2018.
Sustainable Yemen programme recycles waste as school materials
An innovative project recycling and transforming waste into educational tools and art forms is one of many sustainable development schemes coordinated by the local sub-unit of the Yemeni National Commission for UNESCO.
The sub-unit, based in the province of Hodeidah with work extending to neighbouring areas, acts to coordinate and implement the multiple activities of projects on Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). It brings together educational, civil and private sector organizations to mobilize communities towards achieving the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and improving their own environment.
Since 2012, the initiative’s successes include training 60 teachers on the UNESCO course “Education and Learning for a Sustainable Future” and training 320 youth on project management and marketing. It has also established a youth foundation and community college and organized training of trainers.
Project Manager Faisal Ali Ayed said: “The Hodeidah work is particularly important because it is the first project in Yemen that has succeeded in using ESD in a context of large population density and a high percentage of youth facing the multiple challenges of poverty and unemployment.”
Other innovations include using teachers for e-learning, setting up of electronic libraries and collecting funds for poor students to provide breakfast, school meals, school uniform and school bags. Alongside these are awareness campaigns offering information and advice around healthy balanced food, early marriage and HIV/AIDS.
Sustainable development clubs have also been established in some schools to promote community activities related to all dimensions of sustainable development (environmental, social and economic).
Mr Ayed explained why the work had been so successful. “The project has a really dedicated team and collaborating partners. For that reason, the project has achieved real transformation in practices in schools and community and at the same time has received huge media attention so the impact is spread.”
For the future, there are plans to expand the implementation of ESD projects, increase the number of the beneficiaries of educational institutions, in particular youth and women, spread the work to the neighbouring provinces of Hajjah and Rimah where six major projects will be implemented to train school principals, teacher trainers, educators, women and young people on ESD.
An important aspect of the work is enabling young people and women to enter or re-enter the labour market. So far, 920 youth and women have received life and professional skills training and help on integration into the labour market.
“The project has contributed to empowering women to participate in community development as well as changing society’s vision of the role of women and enabling the acceptance of different roles for women in society,” said Mr Ayed.
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